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# Difference Between AM and FM for JEE Main 2024

Last updated date: 23rd May 2024
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## What are AM and FM: Introduction

To explain AM and FM: In the world of radio broadcasting, there are two prominent modulation techniques: amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). These methods have revolutionized the way we transmit and receive radio signals, providing us with a rich array of audio content and communication possibilities. While both AM and FM serve the purpose of transmitting information through electromagnetic waves, they differ significantly in their approach and characteristics. In this article, we are going to deal with the variances between AM and FM, exploring the key aspects that set them apart, including signal quality, noise resistance, bandwidth utilization, and more.

 Category: JEE Main Difference Between Content-Type: Text, Images, Videos and PDF Exam: JEE Main Topic Name: Difference Between AM and FM Academic Session: 2024 Medium: English Medium Subject: Mathematics Available Material: Chapter-wise Difference Between Topics

## Defining AM

Amplitude Modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in radio communication to transmit information through variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. In AM, the amplitude of the carrier wave is altered according to the varying intensity of the audio signal being transmitted.

## Characteristics of AM

• Modulation Process: In AM, the audio signal is superimposed onto the carrier wave by multiplying it with the carrier signal. The resulting modulated signal consists of the carrier wave with varying amplitude.

• Amplitude Variation: The amplitude of the carrier wave is directly proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal. This means that as the audio signal's amplitude changes, the amplitude of the carrier wave changes accordingly.

• Frequency and Phase Remain Constant: While the amplitude of the carrier wave changes in AM, the frequency and phase remain constant throughout the transmission.

• Simple Implementation: AM is relatively simple to implement compared to other modulation techniques. It requires basic electronic components and is widely used in broadcasting applications.

• Signal Quality: AM signals are capable of capturing noise and interference, which can result in reduced signal quality. Factors such as atmospheric conditions, electrical equipment, and geographical obstacles can impact the clarity and range of AM transmissions.

• Bandwidth Usage: AM signals require a wider bandwidth compared to other modulation techniques. This is because the variations in the amplitude of the signal are represented by changes in the frequency spectrum of the carrier wave.

• Long-Range Transmission: Despite its limitations in signal quality, AM is known for its ability to travel long distances. AM signals can propagate over larger distances compared to higher frequency modulation techniques like FM, making it suitable for long-range communication.

• Applications: AM is commonly used in broadcasting applications, such as AM radio stations, where speech and music are transmitted over the airwaves. It is also used in applications like two-way radio communication and aircraft communication systems.

Amplitude Modulation has played a significant role in the development of radio technology, and understanding its principles provides a foundation for comprehending other modulation techniques and their applications.

## Defining FM

Frequency Modulation (FM) is a modulation technique used in radio communication to transmit information by varying the frequency of a carrier wave. In FM, the audio signal is translated into variations in the carrier wave's frequency, resulting in a modulated signal.

## Characteristics of FM

• Modulation Process: In FM, the audio signal is used to change the frequency of the carrier wave. The instantaneous frequency of the carrier wave varies in proportion to the amplitude of the modulating signal.

• Frequency Variation: FM modulates the carrier wave by changing its frequency. As the amplitude of the audio signal changes, the frequency of the carrier wave changes accordingly.

• Constant Amplitude: In FM, the amplitude of the carrier wave remains constant throughout the transmission. The variations occur solely in the frequency domain of the carrier wave.

• Resistance to Noise: FM signals have better resistance to noise compared to AM. Due to the nature of frequency variations, FM transmissions are less capable of capturing noise and interference, resulting in improved signal quality.

• Narrow Bandwidth: FM signals require a narrower bandwidth compared to AM.

• Line-of-Sight Propagation: FM signals typically rely on line-of-sight propagation, meaning they require a direct path between the transmitter and receiver. Obstacles such as mountains or tall buildings can obstruct FM signals, limiting their effective range.

• Applications: FM is widely used in radio broadcasting, particularly in FM radio stations. It is also commonly employed in audio broadcasting, such as for music and voice transmissions. FM is used in various communication systems, including two-way radios, mobile phones, and wireless microphones.

Frequency Modulation has played a crucial role in modern communication systems, enabling high-quality audio transmission and providing a foundation for technologies such as wireless communication and broadcasting. Understanding FM principles is essential for comprehending the advantages and applications of this modulation technique.

## AM and FM Differences

 S. No Category Amplitude Modulation Frequency Modulation 1 Modulation Process In AM, the audio signal is superimposed onto the carrier wave by multiplying it with the carrier signal. The resulting modulated signal consists of the carrier wave with varying amplitude. In FM, the audio signal is used to change the frequency of the carrier wave. The instantaneous frequency of the carrier wave varies in proportion to the amplitude of the modulating signal. 2 Signal Quality AM signals are capable of capturing noise and interference, which can result in reduced signal quality. Due to the nature of frequency variations, FM transmissions are less capable of capturing noise and interference, resulting in improved signal quality. 3 Range of Transmission AM signals can propagate over larger distances compared to higher frequency modulation techniques like FM, making it suitable for long-range communication. FM signals typically rely on line-of-sight propagation, meaning they require a direct path between the transmitter and receiver. Obstacles such as mountains or tall buildings can obstruct FM signals, limiting their effective range. 4 Bandwidth AM signals require a wider bandwidth compared to FM. FM signals require a narrower bandwidth compared to AM. 5 The Constant Parameters In AM, the frequency and phase remain constant throughout the transmission. In FM, the amplitude of the carrier wave remains constant throughout the transmission. 6 Variable Parameter In AM, the amplitude of the carrier wave is directly proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal. FM modulates the carrier wave by changing its frequency. 7 Application AM is commonly used in broadcasting applications, such as AM radio stations, where speech and music are transmitted over the airwaves. It is also used in applications like two-way radio communication and aircraft communication systems. FM is widely used in radio broadcasting, particularly in FM radio stations. It is also commonly employed in audio broadcasting, such as for music and voice transmissions. FM is used in various communication systems, including two-way radios, mobile phones, and wireless microphones.

## Summary

AM and FM are two modulation techniques used in radio communication. AM encodes audio signal by modulating the amplitude of the carrier wave, while FM modulates the frequency. AM signals capture more noise and interference, while FM signals offer better resistance, resulting in higher signal quality. AM signals travel longer distances due to lower frequencies, while FM signals have a shorter range and rely on line-of-sight propagation.

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## FAQs on Difference Between AM and FM for JEE Main 2024

1. What is the modulation process of AM?

In AM, the audio signal is superimposed onto the carrier wave by multiplying it with the carrier signal. The resulting modulated signal consists of the carrier wave with varying amplitude.

2. What are the full forms of AM and FM?

Full form of AM is Amplitude Modulation, while the full form of FM is Frequency Modulation.

3. Which has a narrower bandwidth FM or AM?

FM signals require a narrower bandwidth compared to AM.

4. Why FM has a shorter range of transmission?

FM signals typically rely on line-of-sight propagation, meaning they require a direct path between the transmitter and receiver. Obstacles such as mountains or tall buildings can obstruct FM signals, limiting their effective range.

5. How is the signal quality of FM?

Due to the nature of frequency variations, FM transmissions are less capable of capturing noise and interference, resulting in improved signal quality.