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Hybridization of SO₂

Last updated date: 25th Jul 2024
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What is SO2 Hybridisation?

The central atom, Sulfur, has 3 electron clouds in this molecule. two from its two double bonds with oxygen, and a lone pair of electrons. considering that there are three electron clouds, then it is SP2 and it takes a trigonal planar geometry.

Sulphur Dioxide is SO2

The primary sulphur atom is bonded to two oxygen atoms. The shape is like this: O=S=OThe sulphur atom forms one sigma and one pi bond with every oxygen atom and has one lone pair.

Sulfur in its ground state has first shells fully filled and 6 electrons within the outermost shell. There are two paired electrons in the 3s orbital and 4 electrons in 3p orbital ( paired electrons in 3px orbital and one unpaired electron each in 3py and 3pz orbitals). which will form 4 bonds, it desires four unpaired electrons. Therefore, the formation of the excited state takes place: One 3px electron shifts to an empty 3D orbital. Now, there are 4 unpaired electrons (three unpaired electrons in three 3p orbitals and one unpaired electron in one 3-D orbital).

As the electrons forming sigma bonds (and the lone pair) want to be on an equal energy level, hybridization takes place. One 3s and  3p orbitals get hybridized to shape three same sp2 hybrid orbitals. One hybrid orbital is occupied by means of the lone pair and different two orbitals have unpaired electrons, which take part in sigma bonding with the oxygen atoms. The ultimate 3p and 3-D orbitals remain unhybridized. The two unpaired electrons within the unhybridized orbitals participate in the formation of pi bonds.

Consequently, the hybridization of the principal sulfur atom in this compound is sp2.

P.S. The hybridization of the two oxygen atoms is sp2 as properly.

SO2 is a bent shape (molecular geometry).

Sulfur desires 6 electrons, and so does oxygen. Consequently, 6×three=18 valence electrons distribute in the course of the structure placing 4 for every of two double bonds makes use of up to eight.

you may then position four electrons on every oxygen and the last 2 at the sulfur as a lone pair. Sulfur can be hypervalent (cf. SF6), however oxygen can't due to the fact sulfur get right of entry to its 3-d orbitals (it's at the 1/3 period/row)

Sulfur has one 3s, three 3p, and five three-D valence atomic orbitals (AOs), while oxygen has one 2s and 3 2p valences AOs.

Sigma Bonding/Antibonding Orbitals

The 2s and 2p orbitals on oxygen mix to produce hybridized sp2 AOs for σbonding (the hybridized orbitals are indicated through the "O sp2" label on the far right of the diagram) which can be intermediate in power between the unique 2s and 2pAOs.

The 3s and 3p orbitals on sulfur mix to supply hybridized sp2 AOs for σ bonding (the hybridized orbitals are indicated by means of the "S sp2" label at the far left of the diagram) that are intermediate in electricity among the original 3s and 3p AOs.

Two of the sp2 AOs (2s+2px+2py) from oxygen can overlap head-on with  of the sp2 AOs (2s+2px+2py) from sulfur to form one σ bonding and one σ*antibonding MO.

The σ bonding MOs are labeled 1 for the left S−O σ bond, and 2 for the right S−O σ bond. The antibonding MOs are empty.

As a end result, we Will see that we have accounted for the σ bonding of the sulfur with every oxygen. Till date, our electron matter is 2 x 2 = four.

Lone Pairs of Electrons (Nonbonding Orbitals)

For the lone pairs of electrons, we take a look at the nonbonding MOs that have a dashed line linked to at least one atom's AOs but not the other's AOs. From the shape above, we have to examine the diagonal orbitals, which have blended x and y directions together, indicating an aggregate of the 2px and 2py orbitals.

One in every of sulfur's sp2 hybrid AOs aren't overlapping with one of oxygen's sp2 AOs. that is the lone pair of electrons that sulfur has, and you could inform via noticing how the MO diagram suggests the black dashed-line contribution from only the sp2 AOs of sulfur.

This is orbital three and is categorized because the nonbonding "S sp2" MO within the middle of the diagram, below MO 10.

There are sp2 orbitals of oxygen that don't overlap with the sp2 orbitals of sulfur. Those account for the 2 lone pairs of electrons on every oxygen, and you may show by means of noticing how the MO diagram shows the black dashed-line contribution from only the sp2 AOs of oxygen.

These are MOs 4, 5, 6, and seven, categorized "O sp2", and they're proper underneath MO 9.

To date, our electron count number is (2 x 2) + 2 + (2 x 4) = 14.

Pi Bonding/Antibonding/Nonbonding Orbitals

Ultimately, let us examine the π bonds. The additional π bond on top of every sulfur-oxygen σ bond requires two more electrons per S−O connection.

The Summary is that  π bonds are made among the 2pz AOs of every oxygen and the 3pz of the sulphur. That makes experience due to the fact that we had described the axis coming towards us as the z-axis, the 2pz and 3pz orbitals each lie alongside that axis, and we hadn't taken into consideration the ones orbitals but. they could overlap side-directly to form π bonds.

FAQs on Hybridization of SO₂

1. Explain the Sulfur Dioxide Bond Angle and Electron Geometry.

SO Bond Angle

SO₂ has a bond angle of 120 degrees. Using covalent bonds, one single atom of Sulphur is bonded with the two atoms of Oxygen. It also causes a repulsion of electron pairs to form an angle of 120 degrees.

SO2 Electron Geometry

The SO₂ electron geometry is formed in the trigonal planar shape. The three pairs of electron bonding will be arranged in the plane at the angle of 120-degree. As the one pair remains alone, two double pairs are bonded and thereby form a bent shape.

2. Is SO2 Polar or Nonpolar?

SO₂ is polar. Although the oxygen and sulphur atoms are both highly electronegative, oxygen is more electronegative than sulphur. So, the oxygen-sulfur bonds are slightly polar because the oxygen exerts more control over the covalent bond's electrons.

However, the molecules are necessarily not polar only because there are polar bonds present in them. These polar bonds make SO₂ polar because the molecule is also bent, same to H₂O, and is positioned with sulphur in the middle. Therefore, the molecule is not symmetrical entirely. The side with both oxygen atoms pointing toward is partially negative. The side with a sulfur atom has a partial positive charge, causing the molecule to have polarity.