Hybridisation occurs when two or more atomic orbitals from the same atom are mathematically merged to generate a new orbital that is unique from its constituent parts.
It is just an intermixing of unlike orbitals with similar energy to make new hybrid orbitals.
Hybridization was proposed as the best explanation for why all C - H bonds in methane molecules were identical.
Determination of Hybridization State
The following are simple ways for determining whether or not hybridization occurred:
You can learn more about the atom by observing it.
Rather than counting the number of bonds between atoms, count the number of atoms linked.
Count how many lone pairs are attached.
Add the atoms and lone pairs to get the final number.
Sum 4 = Atom sp3
Sum 3 = Atom sp2
Sum 2 = Atom sp
Besides the above ways, there is another way to determine the hybridization state. The second method, however, may not always be accurate.
It is through a formula: 0.5(V+M-C+A)
V = The total number of valence electrons in a central atom
M = No. of monovalent atom
C = Total Cation charge
A = Total Anion charge
SF6 (Sulphur Hexafluoride) - Characteristics, Hybridization and Geometry
Sulphur hexafluoride is a non-toxic, non-flammable greenhouse gas that is colorless and odorless. It is inorganic and non-polar. SF6 is normally made by exposing or combining S8 with F2.
Characteristics of SF6
Chemically, SF6 gas is extremely stable.
It's non-flammable and highly electronegative, with a dielectric property that's around 2.5 times that of air.
Used as electrical insulation, arc quenching and cooling medium in switchgear, transformers and substations.
It's soluble in nonpolar organic solvents but not in water.
In the air, sulphur hexafluoride is a dense gas that tends to stay low.
Hybridization and Geometry of SF6
SF6 hybridization is sp3d2. Let’s see how?
The orbitals involved in sulphur hexafluoride hybridization, as well as the bonds created during the interaction of sulphur and fluorine molecules, determine hybridization.
In its ground state, SF6 has the electrical configuration 3s23p4. However, when it shares electrons and is excited, the electron pairs in both the 3s and 3p orbitals become unpaired.
These electrons travel upward to fill the higher 3d orbitals that are empty. Six hybrid orbitals are then created:
one of 3s
three of 3p
All the above six half-filled orbitals get hybridized now. This results in the production of six sp3d2 hybrid orbitals. The sp3d2 hybrid orbitals also overlap with a 2p fluorine orbital, forming the S-F bond.
Geometry of SF6
With Sulphur Hexafluoride, the core element is Sulphur and the fluorine atoms are symmetrically distributed around it. The atoms are arranged in an octahedral arrangement, which results in the octahedral molecular geometry of SF6.
Name of the Molecule : Sulphur Hexafluoride
Molecular Formula : SF6
Hybridization Type : sp3d2
Bond Angle : 90o
Geometry : Octahedral