It is often seen that no lather forms while we wash our hands with soap when the water is hard. So, what makes the water hard?
Well, ions of minerals like calcium and magnesium ions present in water is what makes it hard.
Soaps contain sodium salt of fatty acids that forms lather. So, when we dissolve soap in the water, the Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions present in the water react with these fatty acids to give a salt of calcium and magnesium formed with the fatty acids.
The Compounds that may Form During the Reaction are:
These appear as a precipitate on the surface of the water, which is scum.
Temporary Hardness of Water
When Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions are present in the form of Ca(HCO3)2, Mg(HCO3)2 in water, such type of hardness is temporary. This hardness can be removed by boiling the water. When we boil the water, the reaction takes place in the following manner:
Ca(HCO3)2 → CaCO3 + H2O + CO2
Calcium Bicarbonate Calcium Carbonate Water Carbon Dioxide
Mg(HCO3)2 → Mg(OH)2 + CO2
Calcium Bicarbonate → Magnesium Hydroxide Carbon Dioxide
CO2 escapes the surroundings. The resulting salts CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 do not dissolve in water and form precipitates.
Removal of the Temporary Hardness of Water
Let us discuss the methods of removing the temporary hardness of water:
We remove the precipitates by filtration. This is how we can get rid of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions.
In this method, we add some amount of lime (Slaked lime) to the water. The reaction between Ca(HCO3)2 and Ca(OH)2 takes place in this way:
Ca(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2 → CaCO3 + H2O
Calcium Bicarbonate Slaked lime Calcium Carbonate Water
The lime reacts with Mg(HCO3)2:
Mg(HCO3)3 + Ca(OH)2 → CaCO3 + Mg(OH)2 + H2O
We already know that CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 are precipitates, which we can remove by filtering. This is how we can get rid of these precipitates and remove the temporary hardness of the water.
Now, let us study the permanent hardness of the water.
Permanent Hardness of Water
You might have seen a hard white coating on electric kettles, showers, or any bath asset or utensils in which we boil the water. This white coating is due to the permanent hardness of the water.
So, What is the Permanent Hardness of the Water?
The Permanent Hardness Occurs because of the Following Compounds (or Salts):
Thus, the white coating we notice on the utensils is the deposit of these salts. This hardness cannot be removed by boiling.
So, How to Remove the Permanent Hardness of Water?
We use certain chemical methods to remove the permanent hardness of water, which are:
Treating the Water with Washing Soda
In this method, we add washing soda, i.e., Na2CO3 to the hard water. It combines with chloride salts of calcium and magnesium present in the water to form compounds. The reaction is:
CaCl2 + Na2CO3 → CaCO3 + 2NaCl
Calcium Chloride Sodium Carbonate Calcium Carbonate Sodium Chloride
It reacts with MgCl2 to form MgCO3 and 2NaCl. It also reacts with sulfate salts of calcium and magnesium to form carbonates and Sodium sulfate.
The reaction takes place in this way:
Now, the precipitates of CaCO3 and MgCO3 are removed by filtration, which frees the water from Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions. After these ions are removed, the water becomes soft (just like rainwater).
In this method, when Calgon, i.e Sodium Hexametaphosphate (Na6P6O18) is added to the water, each of its molecules ionizes to give two Na+ ions and one complex anion.
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This complex anion further releases Na+ ions and captures all the Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions.
These ions become a part of the complex anion. In this manner, water is freed from Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions. Now, it contains only Na+ ions only. Therefore, it no longer remains hard, i.e., becomes soft.
In this method, we add a Permutit called zeolite (Sodium Aluminum Silicate) or (AlNa12SiO5) to the water, which is insoluble in water. On adding this to water, the ion-exchange process starts between it and the Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions.
In this way, water becomes free from Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions, and no longer remains hard.
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Synthetic Resins Method
In this method, we use synthetic ion-exchange resins (RNa+), which is insoluble in water. When it is added to water, an exchange between RNa+ and Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions occurs. This process frees water from Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions. So, water no longer remains hard, and it becomes soft.
Effects of Hard Water in Daily Life
Some of the effects of hard water are as follows:
Hard water has an unpleasant taste.
Hard water (due to high quantities of calcium and magnesium) dries out your skin and hair.
Clothes and fabrics that are washed in hard water can look dull as their colour fades faster, and they begin to feel rough to touch. It can also shorten their life.
It leaves a chalky, white residue on dishes, and causes spots to appear on them.
It causes stains on sinks, bath tubs, bathroom floors, glassware, utensils, porcelain materials and other material in the house that comes under frequent contact with the water.
It leads to scale build-up and soap scum on plumbing fixtures like taps and shower heads, bath tubs etc, leaving stains.
Steel pipes don’t handle hard water very well. They can get easily clogged or damaged due to the buildup of minerals, impacting the water flow. This can lead to corrosion, low water pressure, and drainage problems.
Heaters, coffee pots/machines, dishwashers and other appliances may require frequent repairs due to build up of minerals.