Courses
Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
More
Store Icon
Store

Difference Between sp sp2 and sp3 Hybridisation for JEE Main 2024

ffImage
Last updated date: 23rd Jul 2024
Total views: 91.2k
Views today: 0.91k
hightlight icon
highlight icon
highlight icon
share icon
copy icon

What Is sp sp2 and sp3 Hybridisation: Introduction

To explain sp sp2 and sp3 hybridisation: sp hybridization occurs when one s orbital and one p orbital of the carbon atom combine to form two new hybrid orbitals. Examples of compounds with sp hybridized carbon atoms include acetylene (C2H2) and carbon monoxide (CO). sp2 hybridization occurs when one s orbital and two p orbitals of the carbon atom combine to form three new hybrid orbitals. This type of hybridization is observed in compounds like ethylene (C2H4) and benzene (C6H6). sp3 hybridization occurs when one s orbital and three p orbitals of the carbon atom combine to form four new hybrid orbitals. Common examples of compounds with sp3 hybridized carbon atoms include methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6). In this article, we’ll look at some of the most important ways that the characteristics of sp sp2 and sp3 hybridisation are the same and different.


Category:

JEE Main Difference Between

Content-Type:

Text, Images, Videos and PDF

Exam:

JEE Main

Topic Name:

Difference Between sp sp2 and sp3 Hybridisation

Academic Session:

2024

Medium:

English Medium

Subject:

Chemistry

Available Material:

Chapter-wise Difference Between Topics


Defining sp Hybridisation

sp hybridization is a type of hybridization in chemistry where one s orbital and one p orbital of an atom combine to form two new hybrid orbitals. These orbitals have a linear geometry with an angle of 180 degrees. This type of hybridization is commonly observed in compounds like acetylene (C2H2) and carbon monoxide (CO). The concept of sp hybridization helps explain the molecular structure and bonding properties of these compounds. Some characteristics of sp hybridisation:

  • Linear Geometry: The hybrid orbitals formed in sp hybridization have a linear arrangement, with an angle of 180 degrees between them. This geometry allows for the formation of double or triple bonds.

  • Two Hybrid Orbitals: In sp hybridization, one s orbital and one p orbital combine to form two new hybrid orbitals. These orbitals are oriented in opposite directions along a straight line.

  • High Electronegativity: The sp hybridized atoms tend to have higher electronegativity compared to atoms with other hybridizations. This is because the presence of the p orbital in the hybridization allows for better overlap with other orbitals, enhancing the atom's ability to attract electrons.

  • Multiple Bond Formation: The availability of two hybrid orbitals in sp hybridization allows for the formation of multiple bonds. This makes sp hybridized atoms more prone to forming double or triple bonds with other atoms.

  • Linear Molecules: Compounds with sp hybridized atoms often exhibit linear molecular geometry. For example, acetylene (C2H2) consists of two carbon atoms that are sp hybridized, resulting in a linear molecule. 

  • Enhanced Pi Bonding: The presence of unhybridized p orbitals in sp hybridized atoms allows for the formation of pi (π) bonds. Pi bonds are formed by the overlap of p orbitals, enabling the sharing of electron density above and below the bonding axis.


Defining sp2 Hybridisation

sp2 hybridization is a type of hybridization in chemistry where one s orbital and two p orbitals of an atom combine to form three new hybrid orbitals. These orbitals have a trigonal planar geometry with an angle of 120 degrees. This type of hybridization is commonly observed in compounds like ethylene (C2H4) and benzene (C6H6). The concept of sp2 hybridization helps explain the molecular structure and bonding properties of these compounds. Some characteristics of sp2 hybridisation:

  • Trigonal Planar Geometry: The hybrid orbitals formed in sp2 hybridization have a trigonal planar arrangement, with an angle of 120 degrees between them. This geometry allows for the formation of double bonds.

  • Three Hybrid Orbitals: In sp2 hybridization, one s orbital and two p orbitals combine to form three new hybrid orbitals. These orbitals are oriented in the same plane, with one p orbital remaining unhybridized.

  • Moderate Electronegativity: The sp2 hybridized atoms generally have moderate electronegativity. They are not as electronegative as sp-hybridized atoms but more electronegative than atoms with sp3 hybridization.

  • Double Bond Formation: The presence of three hybrid orbitals in sp2 hybridization allows for the formation of double bonds. The unhybridized p orbital can overlap with another p orbital to form a pi (π) bond, in addition to the sigma (σ) bond formed by the hybrid orbitals.

  • Planar Molecules: Compounds with sp2 hybridized atoms often exhibit planar molecular geometry. For example, ethylene (C2H4) consists of two carbon atoms that are sp2 hybridized, resulting in a planar molecule.

  • Enhanced Pi Bonding: The presence of the unhybridized p orbital in sp2 hybridized atoms allows for the formation of pi (π) bonds. Pi bonds are formed by the overlap of p orbitals, enabling the sharing of electron density above and below the bonding axis.


Defining sp3 Hybridisation

sp3 hybridization is a type of hybridization in chemistry where one s orbital and three p orbitals of an atom combine to form four new hybrid orbitals. These orbitals have a tetrahedral geometry with bond angles of approximately 109.5 degrees. This type of hybridization is commonly observed in compounds like methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H6). The concept of sp3 hybridization helps explain the molecular structure and bonding properties of these compounds. Some characteristics of sp3 hybridisation:

  • Tetrahedral Geometry: The hybrid orbitals formed in sp3 hybridization have a tetrahedral arrangement, with bond angles of approximately 109.5 degrees. This geometry allows for maximum separation between the hybrid orbitals.

  • Four Hybrid Orbitals: In sp3 hybridization, one s orbital and three p orbitals combine to form four new hybrid orbitals. These orbitals are oriented toward the corners of a tetrahedron.

  • Moderate Electronegativity: The sp3 hybridized atoms generally have moderate electronegativity. They are not as electronegative as sp or sp2 hybridized atoms.

  • Single Bond Formation: The presence of four hybrid orbitals in sp3 hybridization allows for the formation of single bonds. The hybrid orbitals overlap with other orbitals to form sigma (σ) bonds.

  • Tetrahedral Molecules: Compounds with sp3 hybridized atoms often exhibit a tetrahedral molecular geometry. For example, methane (CH4) consists of a carbon atom that is sp3 hybridized, resulting in a tetrahedral molecule.

  • Limited Pi Bonding: In sp3 hybridized atoms, all the available orbitals are involved in sigma (σ) bonds, and there are no unhybridized p orbitals for pi (π) bonding. Therefore, sp3 hybridized atoms do not form pi bonds.


sp, sp2 and sp3 Hybridisation Differences


SI.No

Category 

sp Hybridisation

sp2 Hybridisation

sp3 Hybridisation

1.

Number of Hybrid Orbitals

Two hybrid orbitals

Three hybrid orbitals

Four hybrid orbitals

2.

Electro-

negativity

Relatively high

Moderate

Moderate

3.

Hybrid Orbitals' Composition

One s orbital and one p orbital

One s orbital and two p orbitals

One s orbital and three p orbitals

4.

Geometry

Linear (180 degrees)

Trigonal Planar (120 degrees)

Tetrahedral (109.5 degrees)

5.

Multiple Bond Formation

Can form double or triple bonds

Can form double bonds

Only forms single bonds


While some similarities exist between the two, it's important to note that the geometry, electronegativity, and composition of sp sp2 and sp3 hybridisation differences. These differences highlight the varying number of hybrid orbitals, geometries, and bonding capabilities of sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridization. These characteristics play a significant role in determining the molecular structure and properties of organic compounds. Now, we can easily differentiate what is sp sp2 and sp3 hybridisation.


Summary

In chemistry, hybridization refers to the mixing of atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals with different characteristics. The terms sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridization are commonly used to describe the hybridization of carbon atoms in organic compounds. The concept of hybridization helps explain the molecular geometries and bonding properties of organic compounds, allowing us to understand their structure and reactivity.

FAQs on Difference Between sp sp2 and sp3 Hybridisation for JEE Main 2024

1. What does hybridization mean?

Hybridization refers to the mixing of atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals with different characteristics. It helps explain the molecular structure and bonding properties of compounds.

2. What is the geometry and bond angle in sp3 hybridization?

The geometry of sp3 hybridization is tetrahedral, with a bond angle of approximately 109.5 degrees.

3. Which compounds exhibit sp2 hybridization?

Compounds like ethylene (C2H4) and benzene (C6H6) contain atoms that undergo sp2 hybridization.

4. Which compounds exhibit sp hybridization?

Compounds like acetylene (C2H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) contain atoms that undergo sp hybridization.

5. What is the significance of hybridization in organic chemistry?

Hybridization is crucial in understanding the structure, reactivity, and bonding patterns of organic compounds. It allows us to predict molecular geometries and explain the formation of different types of chemical bonds.