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Difference Between Acid Radical and Basic Radical for JEE Main 2024

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Last updated date: 29th May 2024
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What is Acid Radical and Basic Radical: Introduction

To explain acid radical and basic radical: Acid radicals and basic radicals are essential components in chemistry, playing crucial roles in various chemical reactions and classifications. Acid radicals, also known as acid groups or acidic species, are characterized by their ability to donate protons or accept electrons. They typically have an excess of positively charged protons, making them acidic in nature. On the other hand, basic radicals also referred to as basic groups or basic species, possess the capacity to accept protons or donate electrons. These radicals usually carry a negative charge or have lone electron pairs, making them basic. Acid and basic radicals, with their distinct properties, form the foundation for understanding and predicting chemical reactions, acidity, and alkalinity, thus serving as fundamental building blocks in the study of chemistry. Let’s further know about the characteristics of acid radicals and basic radicals.


Category:

JEE Main Difference Between

Content-Type:

Text, Images, Videos and PDF

Exam:

JEE Main

Topic Name:

Difference Between Acid Radical and Basic Radical

Academic Session:

2024

Medium:

English Medium

Subject:

Chemistry

Available Material:

Chapter-wise Difference Between Topics


Defining Acid Radical

An acid radical refers to an ion or group of atoms that carries a positive charge or has the ability to donate protons $(H^+)$. Acid radicals are typically associated with acidic properties, meaning they tend to react with bases or accept electrons. They are crucial components in various chemical reactions and are often represented by negatively charged ions, such as sulfate $({SO_4}^{2-})$, nitrate $({NO_3}^-)$, or chloride $(Cl^-)$. The following are some of the characteristics of acid radicals:

  • Donates Protons: Acid radicals have the ability to donate protons $(H^+)$ to other substances, making them acidic in nature. This proton donation leads to the formation of conjugate bases.

  • Positive Charge: Acid radicals typically carry a positive charge due to the loss of electrons. This positive charge is a result of the excess of protons compared to the number of electrons.

  • Reacts with Bases: Acid radicals readily react with bases to form salts and water. The protons donated by the acid radical combine with the base to form a new compound.

  • Corrosive: Acid radicals often exhibit corrosive properties, meaning they have the potential to damage or erode certain materials upon contact. This property is due to their ability to react with and break down substances.

  • pH Reducing: Acid radicals decrease the pH of a solution by increasing the concentration of hydrogen ions $(H^+)$. This leads to an increase in acidity.

  • Negative Ion Formation: Acid radicals commonly exist as negatively charged ions (anions) when dissociated in solution. This negative charge balances the positive charge of the protons and is crucial in their chemical behavior.


Defining Basic Radical

A basic radical refers to an ion or group of atoms that carries a negative charge or possesses lone pair(s) of electrons, exhibiting a tendency to accept protons $(H^+)$ or donate electrons. Basic radicals are associated with basic properties, indicating their inclination to react with acids or release hydroxide ions $(OH^-)$. They play a crucial role in chemical reactions, acting as electron pair donors and participating in the formation of salts and coordination complexes. Common examples of basic radicals include hydroxide $(OH^-)$, amide $({NH_2}^-)$, and alkoxide $(RO^-)$. The following are some of the characteristics of basic radicals:

  • Electron Pair Donors: Basic radicals have lone pair(s) of electrons, which makes them capable of donating those electrons to other species. This electron donation allows them to act as Lewis bases in chemical reactions.

  • Negative Charge or Electron-Rich: Basic radicals typically carry a negative charge due to the extra electron(s) or lone pair(s) they possess. This negative charge balances the positive charge of the proton(s) they can accept.

  • Reacts with Acids: Basic radicals readily react with acids by accepting protons $(H^+)$, resulting in the formation of new compounds. This reaction is often accompanied by the release of hydroxide ions $(OH^-)$.

  • pH-Increasing: Basic radicals increase the pH of a solution by releasing hydroxide ions $(OH^-)$ when dissolved in water. This increases the concentration of hydroxide ions, leading to alkalinity.

  • Positive Ion Formation: Basic radicals can exist as positively charged ions (cations) when they gain protons. The positive charge balances the negative charge of the extra electron(s).


Acid Radical and Basic Radical Differences

S.No

Category 

Acid Radical 

Basic Radical 

1.

Donates/accepts

Donates protons $(H^+)$

Accepts protons $(H^+)$ or donates electrons

2.

Charge 

Carries a positive charge

Carries a negative charge or possesses lone pair(s) of electrons

3.

Reacts with

Reacts with bases

Reacts with acids

4.

Effect on pH

Decreases the pH of a solution

Increases the pH of a solution

5. 

Ion representation

Typically negatively charged ions (anions)

Can exist as negatively charged ions (anions) or positively charged ions (cations)


Understanding these differences is important in the context of acid-base reactions, pH control, and chemical equilibrium. The distinct characteristics of acid radical and basic radical contribute to their respective roles in chemical systems and their ability to interact with other substances.


Summary

The presence of acid radicals influences the acidity of compounds and plays a vital role in determining the overall chemical behavior and reactivity of substances. Examples of acid radicals include sulfate $({SO_4}^{2-})$, nitrate $({NO_3}^-)$, and chloride $(Cl^-)$. Basic radicals can form coordination complexes by donating their lone pair(s) of electrons to transition metal ions, leading to the formation of stable complexes. Ammonium $({NH_4}^+)$, hydroxide $$(OH^-)$$, and carbonate $({CO_3}^{2-})$ are some common examples of basic radicals.

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FAQs on Difference Between Acid Radical and Basic Radical for JEE Main 2024

1. How do acid radicals differ from basic radicals in terms of their charge?

Acid radicals and basic radicals differ in terms of their charge. Acid radicals typically carry a positive charge due to the loss of electrons or an excess of protons. This positive charge arises from the tendency of acid radicals to donate protons $(H^+)$. On the other hand, basic radicals usually carry a negative charge or possess lone pair(s) of electrons. This negative charge results from their ability to accept protons or donate electrons.

2. Give an example of an acid radical and explain its chemical properties.

One example of an acid radical is sulfate $({SO_4}^{2-})$. Sulfate is a polyatomic ion that carries a negative charge. It is an acid radical due to its ability to donate protons $(H^+)$. In chemical reactions, sulfate can react with bases to form salts and water. It combines with metal cations to create compounds like sodium sulfate $(Na_2SO_4)$ or calcium sulfate $(CaSO_4)$. Sulfate is also involved in redox reactions and can undergo reduction or oxidation processes.

3. Can a basic radical exist as both an anion and a cation?

No, a basic radical cannot exist as both an anion and a cation simultaneously. Basic radicals, by definition, are characterized by carrying a negative charge or possessing lone pair(s) of electrons. This negative charge or electron-rich nature allows them to act as electron-pair donors or proton acceptors. However, if a basic radical were to gain protons, it would lose its negative charge and become a positively charged ion, i.e., a cation. Therefore, while a basic radical can exist as an anion, it cannot exist as a cation at the same time.

4. What role do basic radicals play in the formation of coordination complexes?

Basic radicals play a crucial role in the formation of coordination complexes. These radicals, often referred to as ligands, possess lone pairs of electrons that can donate to a central metal ion. By coordinating with the metal ion, the basic radicals form coordination bonds, resulting in the formation of a coordination complex. The coordination of ligands to the metal center enhances the stability and reactivity of the complex, leading to various applications in catalysis, materials science, and bioinorganic chemistry. The type and arrangement of basic radicals in a coordination complex greatly influence its properties, such as geometric structure, magnetic behaviour, and spectroscopic characteristics.

5. How do acid radicals react with bases?

When acid radicals react with bases, they undergo a neutralization reaction. The acid radical donates a proton $(H^+)$ to the base, resulting in the formation of salt and water. The proton donation from the acid radical to the base leads to forming a conjugate base and a conjugate acid. The reaction can be represented by the general equation: Acid Radical + Base → Salt + Water. This reaction is fundamental in acid-base chemistry and is responsible for the neutralization of acids and the formation of various salts, which are essential in many chemical processes and applications.