A battery is an electronic device that changes over chemical energy into electrical energy to give a static electrical charge to power. Though a capacitor is an electronic part that stores electrostatic energy in an electric field. Both the capacitor and battery play out a similar capacity of putting away and discharging energy, be that as it may, there are basic contrasts between capacitor and battery in the manner they work.
Albeit the two batteries and capacitors play out a similar capacity of putting away energy, the primary distinction between them lies in the manner they play out this task. Battery stores and disperse energy straightly while capacitors store and circulate energy in short blasts. In this article, we will study in detail about what is the difference between a capacitor and a battery. Let us look at what the capacitor vs battery is.
What is Battery?
A battery is an electronic device made of at least one cell that changes over the chemical energy stuffed inside its dynamic materials into electrical energy to give a static electrical charge to power.
Electrons are created through electrochemical reactions which include the move of electrons by means of an electronic circuit.
In straightforward terms, the battery is a consistent wellspring of power that supplies electricity as a direct current (DC). A battery, for the most part, contains a positive (+ve) and a negative (- ve) terminal.
The cell is the essential power unit of the battery which comprises three primary bits. In addition, there are two electrodes and a chemical called an electrolyte that fills the hole between the electrodes.
At the point when the electrodes are associated with a circuit, the electrons cross from the negative to the positive terminal, in the long run making an electrical charge. Energy is stored inside the battery as chemical energy which gets changed over into electrical energy, discharging electricity through a chemical reaction which in the end generates an electric current.
Some Common Terminologies Used while Talking About a Battery:
Some of the terms that you will frequently come across while studying about a battery are:
Cell: It refers to a single cathode and anode that is separated by an electrolyte. The cells are used to produce a current and a voltage. One or more cells put together make up a battery, for example, car batteries generally contain six cells.
Primary Cell: This term refers to those cells that contain chemicals that cannot be reversed and have to be thrown away once dead.
Secondary Cells: These are the cells whose chemistry can be reversed and therefore, they are recharged multiple times. These cells are also known as rechargeable batteries.
Nominal Voltage: It refers to the voltage that is stated by the manufacturers.
Capacity: It is the measure of the electric charge that a battery can deliver at a specific voltage. The capacity of a battery is generally rated in amp-hours (Ah) and milliamp-hours (mAh).
C-Rate: It refers to the discharge current in powerful batteries like lithium-ion batteries. It is a more appropriate method of denoting discharge current as it makes the attributes of the current more clearly defined. 1C refers to the quantity of current required to discharge the battery in an hour. Therefore, a 400 mAh battery rated as 1C would supply a current of 400 mAh. Similarly, a 400 mAh battery rated as 5C would supply a current of 2 A.
What is Capacitor?
A capacitor (otherwise called a condenser) is likewise an electronic part that stores electrostatic energy in an electric field.
They are progressively similar to a battery however they are utilized for totally unique reasons. While a battery utilizes chemical reactions to store electrical energy and discharges power gradually through an electronic circuit, capacitors are fit for discharging energy quickly.
A capacitor contains in any event two electrical conductors separated by an insulator (dielectric). At the point when an electric field creates over the insulator, it stops the flow and an electric charge is beginning to develop on the plates.
What are the Factors that one should Consider while Choosing a Capacitor?
There are certain points that one should keep in mind while choosing a capacitor. These factors include:
Size: according to your need, you must choose the physical volume and capacitance of your capacitor.
Maximum Voltage: you must consider the maximum voltage of the capacitor as the voltage exceeding the maximum voltage will result in the destruction of the capacitor.
Leakage Current: you must also look into the leakage current while choosing your capacitor as even nanoamps of current loss will cause the energy of the capacitor to drain out slowly and gradually.
Equivalent Series Resistance: the tiny amount of resistance developed at the terminals of the capacitor can create a problem when a lot of current runs through it as it can lead to the production of heat and power loss as well.
Tolerance: one must also check the tolerance level of the capacitors while choosing a capacitor.
Difference Between Capacitor and Battery
Meaning of Capacitor and Battery: While a battery stores its potential energy as chemical reactions before changing over it into electrical energy, capacitors store potential energy in an electric field. In contrast to a battery, a capacitor voltage is variable and is relative to the measure of electrical charge stored on the plates.
Use of Capacitor and Battery: A battery can as a rule store a bigger measure of electrical charge, while a capacitor, then again, is equipped for dealing with high voltage applications and perfect for high-frequency employments.
Charge/Discharge Rate of Capacitor and Battery: The rate at which a capacitor can charge and discharge is typically quicker than what a battery is equipped for in light of the fact that a capacitor stores the electrical energy directly onto the plates. The procedure gets postponed a piece if there should arise an occurrence of a battery because of the chemical reaction included while changing over chemical energy into electrical energy.
Energy Storage of Capacitor and Battery: While both electronic devices are utilized to store electrical energy, the manner in which they do fluctuate drastically. A battery stores electrical energy as chemical energy, while a capacitor stores electrical energy in an attractive field. This is the reason batteries store a great deal of charge however they charge/discharge gradually.
The Polarity of Capacitor and Battery: The polarity of the electronic circuit must be opposite while charging a battery, while it must be the same as it should be while utilizing if there should be an occurrence of a capacitor. A battery keeps up a steady voltage flow over the terminals and it is discharged just when the voltage goes down.
What are the Similarities Between a Battery and a Capacitor?
Though there are many differences between a battery and a capacitor, the two of them also share certain essential similarities with each other. The major similarities between a battery and a capacitor are:
Both the batteries and the capacitor are capable of storing electrical energy.
Both the capacitor and the batteries have a series of resistance.
Both the capacitor and battery have the capability of producing a potential difference across any electrical component connected to it, for example, a resistor.
To know more about batteries, capacitors, and their differences, log on to Vedantu and seek deeper insights from expert mentors. Clear your concepts and queries under the guidance of the best teachers and develop a conceptual foundation.