Mass percentage is defined as the amount of solute (in gram) present in 100 grams of the solution. This can be calculated by using following formula:
Mass fraction can be expressed as the ratio of mass of solute and mass of solution.
This term is defined as the solute volume present in 100 mL of solution. This can be expressed by following formula:
This term is defined as the solute mass present in 100 mL of solution. This can be expressed by following formula:
This term can be defined as the amount of the solute mass (in gram) present in one liter of the solution. So, the unit of this term is gram per liter. It can be expressed by the following formula:
This method is particularly important when the solute is present in trace quantities. It is easy to express concentration of solution in that case. Parts per million can be defined as the amount of the solute in gram present in 106 gram of the solution.
Mole fraction method can be used in the case when the solution is composed of two or more components. It is defined as the ratio of total moles of one component to the total number of moles of the given solution. (Note- The total number of moles of the solution includes the moles of all the components present in the solution.)
Molality of the solution can be defined as the number of solute moles available or present in total 1 kg of the solvent. The symbol of molality is ‘m’.
Molar concentration i.e. also known as molarity can be defined as the total number of solute moles per liter or say per dm3 of the solution.
The term ‘normality’ can be defined as the number of gram equivalents of solute present per liter of the solution. Normality is denoted by ‘N’.
Formality of the solution can be defined as the formula mass (in gram) present per liter of solution. When the formula mass is equal to the molecular mass, formality is equal to the molarity. Formality is also dependent on temperature, just like normality and molarity of the solution. Formality is particularly useful when the solution contains ionic compounds in which molecule does not exist. (Formole is known as the mole of ionic compounds and formality is the molarity of ionic compounds.)