The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China

The topics covered in The Nationalist Movement In Indo China explain Vietnam's struggle as it emerged as a separate country from China. When Vietnam left the shadows of China, it fell under French colonial rule. Vietnam was one of the countries that faced a lot of problems after World War II. Vietnam was similar to China in terms of both governance and culture. The French colonized Vietnam, made changes in its agricultural system and built its infrastructure. They changed the irrigation system to increase the production of rice and expanded the railway network in Vietnam. The French also changed the education system and made learning the French language mandatory for the natives of Vietnam.


Vietnam as a Colony

After modernizing, several European nations ventured into the Asian nations to civilize them. Although their so-called civilizing of the other nations turned out to be just a ruse, they had ulterior motives to come to an underdeveloped nation. In most cases, they wanted to expand to new lands and earn money by various means. The colonial rulers came to a country as traders or merchants, and later, they had been known to enter the political arena of the country. After gaining political prominence, they overthrew the native rulers and established their power. They started controlling the administration and economy of the nation.


The same occurred in the case of Vietnam. The French established their colony in Vietnam in 1858 and the state around 1880. The French gained control of the Tonkin and Annam after the Franco-China war. This led to mass distrust among the people and led to the Nationalist Movement in Indo China.


Vietnam, under the French, had a massive agricultural boost where they had become the third-largest producer of rice in the world and the French reaped the profits. A railway network was also laid out so that transportation of the agricultural produce could be easy and fast. North and South Vietnam were linked by the railways up to Yunnan in China and Siam in Thailand. This infrastructure supported the French rule in Vietnam to great lengths.


The Vietnamese were used as bonded labour to double this infrastructure. Employed in a rubber plantation and rice farms as indentured labour and forced to work in bad working conditions. The terms and conditions of employment were unfair. They also were the victims of human rights violations on various occasions.


The French invested heavily in various infrastructure to develop Vietnam's economy. They did so because they had their own reasons which were purely selfish. They developed the Vietnamese economy so as to create a market where they could sell their goods. They created jobs with unfair work conditions so as to create a market for their own selfish reasons. The French utilized Vietnamese resources like land, labour, and infrastructure and reaped profits.

We have read about the Nationalist movement in Indo-China properly. Let’s practice some FAQs:

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Explain the Main Interest of the French in Vietnam.

Answer: The French had come to Vietnam basically to civilize the natives. They had claimed this as their primary motive to settle in Vietnam. They came to Vietnam and developed the infrastructure of Vietnam. They developed the agriculture, economy and created employment. They also developed the education system in Vietnam. For civilizing the Vietnamese, the French also updated their education system and removed Vietnamese as the language of education. French was strictly imposed on Vietnamese children. The main interest of the French people changed after they came to Vietnam. Under the pretence of developing Vietnam, created a market for their own goods. The French not only exploited the Vietnamese people but also employed them in bad working conditions. They also ensured that the rice production in Vietnam expanded and most of the rice exported. The colonial rulers profited a lot from the rice export business.

2. Explain the White Man's Burden Theory.

Answer: In medieval times, a lot of European countries ventured out into Asian countries and other unexplored lands. These European countries sponsor exploration to various captains and discover new lands. These new lands were then used for various purposes according to the requirement of the explorers. In some situations these lands were used for exiling prisoners of noble birth, sometimes they were used just to explore and use their resources, and sometimes the lands were used to create markets and control the people. The white man's burden theory stated that as the Europeans were the most civilized nations of that time, they had a duty to civilize the rest of the world.  


The theories in The Nationalist Movement In Indo China explain that the white man's burden is quite the opposite though. The Europeans primarily wanted and searched for nations that they could exploit and get profits from. They not only created markets for their goods but also used cheap labour from the colonies to produce their goods. They made the labourers work in bad working conditions and reaped profits.