The topics covered in The Nationalist Movement In Indo China explain Vietnam's struggle as it emerged as a separate country from China. When Vietnam left the shadows of China, it fell under French colonial rule. Vietnam was one of the countries that faced a lot of problems after World War II. Vietnam was similar to China in terms of both governance and culture. The French colonized Vietnam, made changes in its agricultural system and built its infrastructure. They changed the irrigation system to increase the production of rice and expanded the railway network in Vietnam. The French also changed the education system and made learning the French language mandatory for the natives of Vietnam.
Vietnam as a Colony
After modernizing, several European nations ventured into the Asian nations to civilize them. Although their so-called civilizing of the other nations turned out to be just a ruse, they had ulterior motives to come to an underdeveloped nation. In most cases, they wanted to expand to new lands and earn money by various means. The colonial rulers came to a country as traders or merchants, and later, they had been known to enter the political arena of the country. After gaining political prominence, they overthrew the native rulers and established their power. They started controlling the administration and economy of the nation.
The same occurred in the case of Vietnam. The French established their colony in Vietnam in 1858 and the state around 1880. The French gained control of the Tonkin and Annam after the Franco-China war. This led to mass distrust among the people and led to the Nationalist Movement in Indo China.
Vietnam, under the French, had a massive agricultural boost where they had become the third-largest producer of rice in the world and the French reaped the profits. A railway network was also laid out so that transportation of the agricultural produce could be easy and fast. North and South Vietnam were linked by the railways up to Yunnan in China and Siam in Thailand. This infrastructure supported the French rule in Vietnam to great lengths.
The Vietnamese were used as bonded labour to double this infrastructure. Employed in a rubber plantation and rice farms as indentured labour and forced to work in bad working conditions. The terms and conditions of employment were unfair. They also were the victims of human rights violations on various occasions.
The French invested heavily in various infrastructure to develop Vietnam's economy. They did so because they had their own reasons which were purely selfish. They developed the Vietnamese economy so as to create a market where they could sell their goods. They created jobs with unfair work conditions so as to create a market for their own selfish reasons. The French utilized Vietnamese resources like land, labour, and infrastructure and reaped profits.
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