Nationalism is an idea that nurtures the needs of a certain nation with the intention of attaining and sustaining the nation's sovereignty (self-governance) over its motherland. Indian nationalism evolved as a notion during the Indian independence movement which pushed for independence from British rule. Indian nationalism is an example of territorial nationalism, which is comprehensive of all of the people of India, despite their diverse cultural, rhetorical and religious backgrounds.
What are Various Reasons for the Emergence of Nationalism in India?
The main reasons for the emergence of Nationalism in India are:
Political, Economic and Administrative Unification
Impact of Western Education
Development of means of Transport
Socio-religious reform movements
Development of Media, Newspaper and Magazines
Britishers’ exploited Policies
National Movements outside India
Let’s understand the different reasons for the Emergence of Nationalism in India:-
1. Political, Economic and Administrative Unification:
Nationalist opinions fatten easily among the people because India was amalgamated and blended into a nation during the 19th and 20th centuries. The commencement of an unvaried system of government by the British throughout the country unified it administratively. The demolition of the rustic economy and the commencement of modern trade and industries on an all- India scale had progressively made India’s economic life interlinked with the economic fate of people living in various areas of the country. Furthermore, the commencement of the railways, telegraph and unified postal systems had brought the various areas of the country together and boosted common contact among the people.
2. Impact of Western Education :
Due to the extension of the latest western education during the 19th century, a large number of Indians needed a modern, secular, democratic and nationalist political perspective. The extension and fame of the English language aided freedom fighters of different linguistic regions to interact with each other. Modern education also created a certain consistency and section of perspective and interests among the educated Indians. This English-educated intelligentsia formed the core for the newly-arising political disruption, and it was this group of the society that yielded the leadership to the Indian political guild.
3. Development of Means of Transport:
The British formed a lattice of roads, railways, post and telegraph systems in the nation. This piloted the escalation of movements of people from one part of the country to another and mounted the circulation of particulars. All this expedited the emergence of a national movement in India.
4. Socio-religious Reform Movements:
These reform movements quested to remove social iniquity which split the Indian society. This had the impact of bringing different groups of society together. Since many reform movements withdrew their motivation from India’s rich cultural heritage, these boosted pan-Indian emotions and sparked nationalism.
5. Development of Media, Newspaper and Magazines:
With the emergence of the modern press, both English and Vernacular, the latter half of the 19th century sighted an unmatched enlargement of Indian-owned English and Vernacular newspapers. The Indian Press played a memorable role in rallying public judgement, collocating political movements, fighting out public judgements and fostering nationalism.
6. Britishers’ Exploited Policies:
A relevant aspect in the expansion of national feelings in India was the tone of racial ascendancy embraced by many Englishmen in their doings with Indians. The exploited policies of the British government were also superintendent for the expansion of political unions.
7. National Movements Outside India:
There were many national movements outside the country that galvanized the Indian nationalists like the Russian Revolution, the French Revolution, the American War of Independence.
More About Indian Nationalism
When the First World War broke out in Europe in 1919, it had far-reaching global implications. It could have been used to spark the war for India's independence! The rise of Satyagraha and the Non-Cooperation Movement sparked a wave of nationalism in India. Let's take a closer look.
Different reasons for Indian Nationalism
Satyagraha as a Concept
In 1919, nationalism was expanding into new sectors, with new social groups and tactics of struggle emerging. When Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) arrived in India, he brought with him the concept of satyagraha, which emphasised the power of truth and the urgency of seeking it.
The concept emphasised the importance of truth and encouraged individuals to seek it out. Physical force, he argued, was not a necessary step in fighting the colonists. In 1916, he visited Champaran, Bihar, to persuade locals to oppose the harsh plantation system.
In 1918, Gandhi intervened in a conflict between Ahmedabad mill owners and their workers. He asked workers to go on strike and seek a salary raise of 35 per cent. This drew him closer to the public, as well as the workers.
The Rowlatt Act is a Piece of Legislation passed in the Year
After the Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919, Gandhiji lost patience and decided to use a non cooperation movement to protest the unjust law.
The 6th of April 1919 was declared Satyagraha Day, and people all around the country fasted. On April 10th, police in Amritsar opened fire on a peaceful procession, resulting in widespread bank attacks. The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre is the name given to this tragedy.
Movement of the Khilafat
The Satyagraha movement was still limited to cities and towns when it became widely popular. The Khilafat movement was then founded by Mahatma Gandhi. The only way to do this was for Hindus and Muslims to come together.
Maulana Azad, Ajmal Khan, and Hasrat Mohani led the formation of a Khalifa Committee. The goal was to unite the people and instill a sense of patriotism in them.
The Nationalistic Feeling
When people of various religions and communities establish a sense of collective belonging, the nationalist movement grows. A nation's identity is characterised in this way. When Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay penned 'Vande Mataram' for our homeland in 1870, he first conceived this image of Bharat Mata.
Bengal designed a tri-colour (red, green, and yellow) flag during the Swadeshi Movement. It had eight lotuses, each symbolising an individual region, as well as a crescent moon, which represented Hindus and Muslims.