Earth is the planet in our solar system that has the capability to provide life. The surface of the earth is a zone where three main components of the environment meet, overlap as well as interact.
There are four major domains of the Earth as follows- lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and the biosphere. The atmosphere is further divided into four layers based on composition, temperature, and other properties that are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.
There are Two Main Divisions of the Surface of the Earth
Continents: Continents are the large landmasses.
The Highest Mountain Peak on this planet is Mount Everest.
Ocean Basins: Oceans are huge water bodies.
Mariana Trench is the deepest Oceanic trench on this Earth which derives its name from the nearby Mariana Islands.
The Four Major Domains of the Earth
The four major domains of the earth interact with each other as well as affect each other in some way or the other.
Lithosphere: The solid portion of this planet is called the Lithosphere.
Atmosphere: The gaseous layers that surround the earth are called the atmosphere.
Hydrosphere: Water covers a very big area of the earth’s surface that is called the Hydrosphere.
Biosphere: Biosphere is the zone where land, water, and air together are found.
Lithosphere - The Domain of Land
The very outermost portion of the Earth which consists of the Upper Mantle and also the Crust of the Earth is known as the Lithosphere.
Lithosphere has very rigid mechanical properties. The uppermost part of the lithosphere is called the pedosphere.
The tectonic plates are a subdivision of the Lithosphere.
Hydrosphere - The Domain of Water
The domain of water is called the hydrosphere. It comprises different sources of water and also various types of water bodies like rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, etc. Water is very essential for all living organisms in the world.
The hydrosphere comprises water on earth in Oceans, Seas, Rivers, Lakes, and even in frozen forms where 2.5% is freshwater and in this 2.5%; approximately 69% is in snow and ice form. The other 97.5% of Earth’s water is saltwater and 71% of the surface of the Earth is covered by oceans.
Atmosphere - The Domain of Air
The atmosphere is divided into five layers and they are:
About 99 percent of the atmosphere is composed of nitrogen and oxygen where Nitrogen is 78 percent, oxygen is 21 percent, and other gases comprise 1 percent.
Biosphere – The Domain of Life
The biosphere is the zone of contact between land, water, and air. It is the zone where life exists and that is what makes this planet unique.
The organisms in the biosphere are divided into:
1. Plant kingdom
2. Animal kingdom