An Introduction to Resources and Development

Overview of Resources and Development

You learn about resources and their classification in the first chapter of Class 10 Geography. Additionally, you will learn about resource development and planning in India as you go into the depths of the chapter. Land resources and soil types are discussed, as well as the classification of soils in India. A discussion of soil erosion and conservation concludes the chapter. "CBSE Notes Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 - Resources and Development" describes all of these topics in detail. Make your studies more efficient by going over these CBSE Class 10 Social Science notes. Download them in PDF format as well.

Resource Development:

It is the process of developing natural resources effectively and efficiently without harming the environment or human beings. Resources are not only beneficial for the present, but also for future generations.

Resources are Classified According to their Type

The following ways can be used to classify resources:

In terms of origin - biotic and abiotic:

Biotic Resources are derived from the biosphere and have life.

Ex: Human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc.

The term abiotic resources refers to all things that are composed of non-living organisms.

Ex: rocks and metals.


  • Based on exhaustibility - renewables and non-renewable:

Resources that are replenishable or can be renewed through physical, chemical or mechanical means are termed Renewable or Replenishable. It can be further subdivided into continuous resources and flows of resources.

Ex: Solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc.

Geologically, non-renewable resources take an extremely long time to develop. In the process of forming, these resources take millions of years. There are resources that can be recycled, such as metals, and others that cannot, such as fossil fuels, as they need to be used.

Ex: Minerals and fossil fuels.


  • Based on ownership - individual, community, national, and international:

The resources of individuals are privately owned by them. Rural communities own large plots of land, while urban communities own houses, plots, and other properties.

For example: Plantations, pastures, ponds, and wells.

Community Owned Resources are accessible to all members of the community.

For example: Grazing grounds, burial grounds, public parks, picnic spots, playgrounds etc.

National Resources are owned by nations and countries. It is the sovereign nation's right and responsibility to have the mineral resources, water resources, forests, wildlife, and land within its political boundaries and the sea area beyond 12 nautical miles (22.2 km) from the coast termed territorial waters, as well as all resources therein.

For example: Roads, canals, railways etc.

The international community regulates international resources. In the open ocean, the resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to other countries and they cannot be exploited by any one nation without the consent of international institutions.


  • On the basis of the current status of development - potential, mineral reserves and stock.

The term potential resource refers to resources found in an area that have not been exploited.

For example: Gujarat and Rajasthan have tremendous potential for wind and solar energy development, but the development has not been completed yet.

In developed resources, the quality and quantity of resources have been tested and are ready to be utilized. Technology and feasibility play a large role in the development of resources.


The stock term refers to those materials in the environment that are capable of satisfying human needs but do not have the technology to be accessed by humans.

For example: A rich source of energy, hydrogen can be used in many ways. Unfortunately, we lack advanced technologies to harness it.

A reserve represents a subset of the stock that is technically possible to use, but that has not started using. Such resources could be used to meet future needs.

For example: Using the water in a dam, forest, etc., is like reserving it for future use.

Development of Resources

Human survival on this planet is based on natural resources, which are the most valuable gifts of nature. It is because a variety of resources are available that the world has developed so much. However, they have led to many problems over the centuries - more than we can afford.

  • Resources are continually depleted to meet the greedy demands of mankind.

  • Due to the concentration of major resources in a few hands, society is divided into Haves and Have Nots.

  • Global issues that have arisen, such as global warming, pollution, ozone depletion, climate change, etc.

Planning for Resource Utilisation and Development 

In order for human existence and the future of the earth to survive, we must stop using and exploiting the resources. The latter requires the proper use, distribution, and development of resources, which is why resource planning is important.

 India is a country where it plays a very important role. In some areas, resources are abundant, but basic infrastructure may not exist. The state of Arunachal Pradesh has large amounts of water, but infrastructural development is lacking. The solar energy potential of Rajasthan is also great, but it has not yet been used to its full potential.

Planning for resources is therefore necessary at all levels, including local, regional, state, and national.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the Difference Between Stock and Reserves?

Stock is a form of those resources which are abundant in nature but human beings do not know how to utilize them. For example, Hydrogen can be a great source of energy but we don't know how to use it. Whereas Reserves are considered to be part of stocks. These resources can be used with presently available technology but have not been started yet. For example water in the dams is a reserve.

2. What Do You Mean By Resource Planning? What are the Various Steps Involved in it?

Resource planning is the planning which is done for the proper utilization and for equitable distribution of the resources. It is a complex process that has the following steps :

  • Identification and documentation of the various resources of the country through survey, mapping, measurement, etc.

  • Creation of planning structure to implement the resource development plans with the help of skills, technology, and set up institutions.

  • Complement the resource plans with national plans.

Here we have covered a summary of resources and development. In this, we learned about different types of resources along with their examples, resource planning, conservation of resources, etc. We hope you'll be able to answer any questions like the short note on resource development or various types of resources etc with the help of these notes.

3. What are the steps involved in resource planning?

The steps of resource planning

  • Measurements, surveys, maps, and other methods to identify and document the resources of a country.

  • Development of a planning structure to help implement resource development plans using technology, skills, and institutions where needed.

  • The development of national plans should complement the resource development plans.

4. What are the differences between stocks and reserves?

Those resources which are abundant in nature but humans are not able to utilize are called stocks. Several substances, such as hydrogen, can be excellent sources of energy, but we have no idea how to use them. In contrast, stocks contain reserves. Currently available technologies may be employed with the resources, but no work has been done. An example is the water in dams.

5. How does soil conservation work?

The formation of soil is a multi-year process that supports plant growth, as well as providing habitat for various living organisms. Degradation and erosion of soil is a result of overuse. Soil conservation can be achieved with the following methods.

  • It is important to plough the soil in the correct way based on its form.

  • The purpose of contour ploughing is to slow the flow of water down slopes.

  • Hillsides can benefit from terrace agriculture.

  • Forming grass strips on large surfaces can be done with strip cropping.