India, the 7th largest country in the world in terms of area, is the epitome of diversity. It is one of the best examples of diverse topography that can cite almost anything ranging from high-rise mountains and archipelagos. In this section, we will study the prime physical features of India map. These features will be explained from the prehistoric age to the current geographical map we have seen. Learn the rich geographical features of India here and gather more knowledge to answer questions in your exams.
The Indian Map: A Brief Introduction
India is a country with remarkable topographical features that make it a great subject of study. You will be fascinated to learn that this country has almost every feature for a complete study of different geographical landforms. Ranging from the highest mountain ranges to plateaus, riverbeds to archipelagos, India is rich with such features. Read this section carefully and understand what points you can add to the physical features of India project.
The Origin of India
This is not a topic where you will find historical evidence of the empires and kingdoms. It goes way back to when the entire world had a single landmass divided into two massive segments. The Indian peninsula was a part of the Gondwana land segment. These segments formed due to the plate tectonic movements occurring beneath the sea level. The Indian peninsula was a part of the family that had Australia, South America, and South Africa as members.
The ocean currents and the tectonic actions separated these big landmasses and formed the continents. In fact, they are still moving apart from each other. It took millions of years to float apart from each other and to become a part of the big continents. The special features of India were drawn from the features of Gondwana Land. Some new features also evolved due to such movements of the tectonic plates and changes in the ocean currents.
The Indo-Australian tectonic plate(comprising the Indian peninsula and Australia) started moving north and eventually collided with the Eurasian Plate. This significant movement gave the country we are living in. If you follow the physical landscape of India, you will notice that the Himalayan ranges have formed as a barrier between the Eurasian Plate and the Indo-Australian plate. If you remember the features of the fold mountains, you will understand how the Himalayan Ranges formed due to the collision of these tectonic plates and the folding of the seabed to form a high-rise landscape. This is how India got her physical features. Let us now discuss these features elaborately.
Prime Physical Features of India Map
If you focus on the Indian map, you will find six different segments of physical features. These features are different from each other in terms of physical traits and formation.
1. The Himalayas
As mentioned earlier, the Himalayas are the prime feature of the Indian subcontinent. It is one of the prime physical characteristics of India that controls the climatic conditions of the entire northern part of the country.
The steepest and rugged mountain ranges in the world, the Himalayas stretch from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh. It covers almost 2500 km forming a protective arc. It stops the chilly Arctic winds from entering the landmass and keeps the tropical region warm. The width of this landmass ranges from 150 to 400 km. The average peak height is 6000 m in the Greater Himalayas. The same for the Lesser Himalayas is 4000 m.
2. The Northern Plains
India has three main river systems made by the Ganga, Brahmaputra, and the Indus. It is the second most important physical features of India on map. The rich alluvial deposit makes this place the cradle of civilization. The water flowing from the glacial origin of all these rivers helps civilizations to settle in their banks.
The Punjab plains cover the tributaries of Indus. A major part of this plain lies within the map of Pakistan. The Ganga Plains cover the states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and North India. The Brahmaputra Plains cover Assam and a major part of the north-eastern states.
3. The Indian Peninsular Plateau
Considered as the oldest landform that dates back to the era of Gondwana Land, the Indian Peninsular plateau or the Deccan Plateau covers the Central Highlands ranging from Malwa Plateau to the northern part of the Narmada River. The rest of this landmass is the Deccan Plateau. It is a triangular landmass ranging from the Eastern Ghats to the Western Ghats.
4. The Indian Desert
The vast sand dunes in the arid western part of the country cover the Indian Desert. It ranges from the Aravali Hills to the western corridor of India covering the states of Rajasthan and North Gujarat.
5. The Indian Coastal Plains
The coastal plains of India are one of the major geographical features of India that ranges from the Bay of Bengal to the Indian Ocean and then to the Arabian Sea. The Arabian coastline is divided into the Konkan Coast, the Kannada Plains, and Malabar Coast. The Eastern Coast is divided into the Northern Circar and the Coromandel Coast.
India has two sets of archipelagos. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, surrounded by the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean, are in the east. The Lakshadweep archipelago lies in the west guarded by the Arabian Sea. It is considered to be one of the special features of India.