Have you ever wondered where all the smartphones, laptops come from? You go to a relevant shop to purchase the product you want but from where does that product come into existence in that particular shop? The shopkeeper purchases that product from his or her distributor and the distributor purchases from the manufacturer. The manufacturer produces the final product which is made available in the shop from the raw materials.
Therefore the manufacturer is the origin of any product.
An industry is a group of many organizations involved in the production as well as in the manufacturing or handling of the same type of product and service. All the industries are part of the secondary activity. The secondary or the manufacturing converts all the raw materials into products of more value to the people.
Basically, the industry refers to the economic activities concerned with the production of the goods, extraction of the services as well as provisions or services. Therefore one can say that an industry is concerned with the following:
Production of a good that is steel energy.
Extraction of the materials that are coal mining.
Provisions for the services that are tourism.
There are also emerging industries such as sunrise industries.
Classification of Industries in India
Agro-Based Industries - These industries use plants and also animal-based products as their raw materials. For example food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products, and also the leather industries.
Mineral-Based Industries- The mineral-based industries are based on mining and use mineral ore as the raw material. These industries also provide to other various industries and they are used for heavy machinery as well as building materials.
Marine-Based Industries- These industries use raw materials from the sea or the ocean. For example- fish oil.
Forest-Based Industries - The Forest-based industries use their raw materials from the forest like wood. The industries connected with the forests are paper, pharmaceutical, and furniture.
The size of industries is measured by how much money is invested, employee count, and also the goods produced.
Small-Scale Industries - The small-scale industries have less capital and technology invested in them. There is often manual labor noticed here. For example, Basket Weaving, pottery, and handicrafts.
Large-Scale Industries - The large-scale industries are totally the opposite of that of small-scale industries and here the capital invested is large and advanced technology is in use here. For Example, automobiles and also Heavy Machinery.
Private Sector - Private industries are businesses that are owned and also operated by an individual or a group of individuals.
Public Sector - Public industries are owned and also managed by the government. For example, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)
Joint Sector Industries - Joint sector industries are jointly operated by the state and individuals. For example, Maruti Udyog.
Cooperative Sector Industries - Cooperative industries are operated by the suppliers, the producers, or the workers of raw material. For example, Amul India.
Industrial Distribution in India
Iron and Steel Industry
The iron and steel industries are known as the feeders of all other industries because the products of these industries are used as raw materials in other industries.
The input includes raw materials such as iron ore, labor, capital, and also other infrastructure. Iron ore is converted into steel by various processes.
Finally, the output is steel which is the basic material needed in every other industry.
The textile industry is one of the oldest industries in the world which was revolutionized during British rule in India. There are very few demanded fibers such as Muslins from Dhaka Chintzes and Calicos, Gold wrought cotton from Surat, Burhanpur, and Vadodara.
The very famous cloth type which was exported across the countries of Egypt, China etc is the famous Block-printed cotton fabrics from Gujarat. During the prevalence of the Barter system, north Indian silks were exchanged to get their Western Spices. It was even exported in large quantities through the Silk route of China. Textile manufacturing was a largely widespread field during the Mughal Empire. From simple Opium dyed clothes to khadi, India has a long history of Textiles.
Information technology deals with the storage, processing, and distribution of information and it has gained global attention. India started IT services in Mumbai in 1967. This came into existence with the creation of Tata Consultancy Services. The Tata Consultancy Services officially collaborated with Burroughs, which brought an initiation to IT export services. In the world of economics, India is the largest exporter of IT. It constitutes about 79% of the total revenue. The major information technology hubs in India are:
Bangalore is Indias’ biggest tech hub. It records 38% of the total IT exports making a net worth of \[$\]45 billion to India and is thus called the “Silicon Valley of India ''.
Hyderabad is the largest bioinformatics company in India. Remarkable tech troops include Accenture, Amazon, Deloitte, Tata Consultancy Services, Microsoft, HCL Technologies, Oracle Corporation, Google, Qualcomm, Dell, Cognizant.
Chennai is the third-largest exporter of IT. TIDEL Park in Chennai was recognized as the largest IT park built in Asia.
Rajiv Gandhi infotech park worth ₹600 billion is located in Pune.
Cities like Gurgoan and Noida in Delhi have contributed to the techno industries of the world on a notable scale.
Classification of Agro-Based Industries
Agro-based industries can be classified into two categories- first the food processing industries and second the nonfood processing industries. Food processing industries generally deal with the preservation of perishable products as well as the utilization of by-products for other purposes. Indias’ capital income and dependency are on agriculture. Thus its significance is also equally high. The economic statistics report of India states that about 18% of the GDP is coming from the agricultural sector. People from different shades of the country are depending on agriculture for their living. However, it is apparently visible that the share of the population working in this humble industry is decreasing day by day. So India is not very far from facing scarcity in case people are putting their efforts into cultivation and raw material production.
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