Formic Acid Formula

Bookmark added to your notes.
View Notes
×

What is the Formic Acid Formula?

Formic Acid is also known as Formylic Acid or Methanoic Acid. It is a covalent compound. Covalent compounds are formed by sharing of electrons between elements. All organic compounds are covalent compounds since they contain Carbon, and Carbon has the highest propensity amongst all elements to form covalent compounds. If you look at the formic acid formula, it contains a Hydrogen atom bonded to a carboxylic acid functional group. The molecular or chemical formula of Formic Acid is HCOOH or HCO2H.


What is the Structural Formula of Formic Acid?

Formic Acid is the simplest of all carboxylic acids. It includes a Hydrogen atom bonded to a carboxylic acid group. The Hydrogen atom’s small size does not interfere much with the O-C-O bond angles in the carboxylic acid functional group. The O-C-O bond angle is 116.8 degrees. The incoming Hydrogen atom forms a bond with the hydroxyl Oxygen. The dihedral angle of the H-C-O-O bond is 180 degrees.


[Image will be uploaded soon]


Fig. Structure of Formic Acid


What are the Properties of Formic Acid?

As stated earlier, the chemical formula of methanoic Acid is HCOOH. The chemical formula of the Acid determines its properties, which are:

  • It has a molecular weight of 46.025 g/mol.

  • Formic Acid has a melting point of 8.4 degrees.

  • Formic Acid has a boiling point of 100.8 degrees.

  • Formic Acid has a density of 1.22 g/mL.

  • Formic Acid is a pungent-smelling colourless liquid. Due to the carboxylic group, it tastes sour.

  • Formic Acid is miscible in methanol, acetone, ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and ether. It is also partially soluble in toluene, xylene, and benzene.

  • Formic Acid can be prepared chemically from carbon dioxide, methyl formate, formamide, etc.

  • Formic Acid is more vital than Acetic Acid.

Natural Occurrence of Formic Acid

Formic Acid exists in nature. Bee stings and ant stings contain formic Acid. When they sting, we feel pain on our skin due to formic Acid's reaction with our skin. Formic Acid can activate our pain receptors. Moreover, it has also been found to have antibacterial activity. Therefore, Formic Acid is used for various purposes.


What are the Uses of Formic Acid?

Formic Acid has several uses. Some of them include:

  • Formic Acid is used in livestock feed since it prevents bacterial growth on them during storage.

  • Formic Acid can be used as a preservative.

  • Beekeepers use Formic Acid as a miticide against mites.

  • Formic Acid is used in the manufacturing process of rubber, leather, etc.

  • Formic Acid is used in the manufacture of isobutanol from CO2.

  • Formic Acid is a chief ingredient in fuel cells.

Conclusion

Formic Acid is the simplest kind of organic Acid comprising a Hydrogen atom bonded to the Carboxylic acid functional group. It is a naturally occurring acid found in bee and ant stings. The structural formula of methanoic Acid determines the physical and chemical properties. Formic Acid has several uses in the manufacture of other chemicals, preservatives, etc.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Why Do We Feel Pain When We Are Stung By Bees or Ants?

Ans: Bees and ants have Formic Acid in their stings. When they sting any people, they inject the Acid into the skin of the victims. The Acid activates the pain receptors present on the skin. Therefore, we feel pain when we are stung by ants and bees.

2. What is the Structural Formula of Methanoic Acid, and What Does it Determine?

Ans: The chemical formula for Methanoic acid is HCOOH. It comprises a Hydrogen atom bonded to a carboxylic acid group. The Hydrogen atom does not interfere much with the O-C-O bond angle, which is 116.8 degrees. The dihedral angle of the H-C-O-O bond is 180 degrees. The structural formula of Formic Acid determines its physical and chemical properties.

3. What are the Uses of Formic Acid?

Ans: Formic Acid is primarily used as a preservative for livestock feeds. It is used as a miticide by Beekeepers, manufacturing of rubber, leather, and other chemicals. It is an integral part of fuel cells.