Planning is very important not just for organizations, but also for individuals, for success and the successful performance of an organization. It is the most fundamental of all the roles of management. The first of the basic managerial tasks are planning. Planning is important as it inquires about organizational priorities by default and includes decision-making in preferred ways and means of achieving goals. This requires the collection of missions and targets and the steps to achieve them. Consequently, each company puts a greater focus on planning.
As a process, planning includes deciding the potential course of action, which is why action is taken, what action is taken, how an action is taken, and when action is taken. These are linked with various aspects of the method of planning.
Nature of Planning
By considering its four main aspects, the essence of planning can be understood. These are:
Characteristics of Planning:
Managerial Role: Planning is a managerial function that provides the basis for other management functions, i.e. coordinating, staffing, directing, and controlling, as they are carried out within the periphery of the plans made.
Objective-Oriented: It focuses on the definition of the organization's objectives, the identification of possible courses of action, and the decision on the required action plan to be followed to achieve the objectives.
Continuous Process: Plans for a particular term, such as a month, quarter, year, and so on are made. When the time is over, fresh proposals are drawn up, taking into account the current and future needs and conditions of the organization. It is also an ongoing process, as the plans are framed, implemented and another plan is pursued.
Intellectual Process: It is a mental activity that includes applying the mind, thinking, anticipating, intelligently imagining and innovating, etc.
Futuristic: We take a sneak look at the future in the course of preparation. It includes looking into the future, evaluating it, and forecasting it so that the organization can better face future challenges.
Planning is concerned with the setting of goals, targets, and the development of strategies to achieve them. The exercise lets managers evaluate the current situation to find ways of maintaining the desired role in the future. It is both the organization’s need and the managers' responsibility.
Importance of Planning:
It allows managers to boost potential results for the good of the organization, by setting targets and choosing a course of action.
This minimizes danger and misunderstanding by looking forward to the future.
Coordination of events is encouraged. Therefore it reduces duplication between operations and removes unproductive jobs.
It states in advance what needs to be achieved in the future, so it offers instructions for action.
It uncovers potential opportunities and risks and detects them.
It sets out control criteria. It contrasts real performance with normal performance and attempts are made to correct the same performance.
Different Types of Planning:
There are different types of planning. Some of the important planning are explained below:
One is a single-use strategy that sets a course of action for a specific set of circumstances and is used until the specific purpose is achieved. Programs, budgets, programs, and timetables can be included. It is called specific preparation, too. The single plan for use is short-range. For single or special circumstances or issues, single-use plans are prepared and are usually discarded or replaced after one use. Four forms of single-use policies are commonly used. These are the:
The Standing Plan is one that is meant to be used again and again. The standing plans include goals, policy processes, tactics, guidelines, and strategies. This helps managers to mitigate their workload. The routine plan is often called the Standing Plan. Long-range is normally a standing or routine plan. Standing plans are drawn up to cover problems encountered repeatedly by administrators. A standard operating method can be called a standing plan (SOP). Five forms of standing plans are commonly used:
Mission or intent
Difference Between Single-Use Plan and Standing Plan: