The corporate laws in India got revolutionized by The Companies Act, 2013 with the introduction of various new concepts that were non-existent previously. The introduction of the concept of One Person Company was one of the game-changers. A whole new way of starting businesses was recognized which granted flexibility that an entity like a company could offer. It also protected limited liability that was lacking in partnerships and sole proprietorships.The ability of individuals to form a company was already identified by various other countries like the USA, China, Singapore, UK and Australia before the new Companies Act 2013 was enacted.
The Companies Act, 2013 completely changed the rules of business in India by introducing a number of new concepts that were not previously available. One person and one of the new ideas introduced.
An individual company (OPC) defines a company constituted with one person (one) as a member, in contrast to the standard practice of having at least two members. It is a recognition of a one-man economic organization that paves the way for small businesses, service providers to enter the business by increasing their opportunities with corporate ownership.
In terms of section 2 (62) of the Companies Act, 2013 defines "one-person company" to mean a company having only one person as the member of the company. Because members of a company are recognized as the company’s shareholders or the subscribers to its Memorandum of Association, One Person Company (OPC) is functionally a company with only one shareholder as its member.OPCs are usually formed when the business has just one founder or promoter. Due to the many advantages that OPCs offer, entrepreneurs whose businesses are at a nascent stage give more preference to the creation of OPCs rather than sole proprietorships.
Any natural person (should not be a minor) who is an Indian citizen whether or not an Indian citizen, i.e. the NRI will be eligible to enter One Person Company and appoint an OPC nominee, India's non-resident timeline has been reduced to 120. Days.
Difference between One Person Company and Sole Proprietorships
An OPC and a sole proprietorship form of business might come across to be alike since both the forms of businesses have a single person involved who owns the business, but in reality, they are quite different from each other. The nature of the liabilities carried by both of them is the major difference between the two forms.
OPC being a separate legal entity on its own which is distinctive from its promoter has its own liabilities and assets. The promoter cannot be held liable personally to pay off the debts of the company.
Whereas, the sole proprietorship and its proprietor are the same. So, in the case of non-fulfilment of the liabilities of the business, the promoter’s assets are attached and sold by the law.
Features of a One Person Company
The general features of a One-Person Company are as follows.
Section 3(1)(c) of the Companies Act, 2013 states that a company can be formed by a single person for any purpose recognized by the law. OPCs are further described as private companies.
Single - Member
Unlike other private companies, OPCs can have only one shareholder or member.
The sole member of the company nominates a nominee during the registration of the company. This is a feature unique to OPCs and this distinguishes it from all other types of companies.
No Perpetual Succession
The death of the only member of the company allows the nominee to either reject or choose to become its sole member. In other kinds of companies, the concept of perpetual succession is followed.
Minimum One Director
Minimum one person needs to be the director of OPCs, which is the member in this case. There can be a maximum of 15 directors.
No Minimum Paid-up Share Capital
For OPCs, any minimum paid-up share capital has not been prescribed by the Companies Act, 2013.
Many privileges and exemptions are enjoyed by the OPCs under the Companies Act that other types of companies are not entitled to.
Formation of One Person Companies
An OPC can be created by a single person by subscribing his name to the Memorandum of Association and fulfilling the other prerequisites prescribed by the Companies Act, 2013. The MoA also needs to declare all the details of a nominee who would go on to become the sole member of the company in case of death of the original member or he becomes incapable of entering any contract.
The MoA and the nominee’s consent to his nomination are to be submitted to the Registrar of Companies in addition to the application for registration. That nominee is allowed to withdraw his name at any given point of time by submitting the required application to the Registrar. The member is also entitled to cancel his nomination later.
Membership in One Person Companies
In India, only natural individuals who are the citizens and residents of the country are eligible to create an OPC. The nominees of OPCs are also guided by the same directive. Also, such a natural person is not allowed to be a member or nominee of more than one OPC at any given point of time.
One significant point is that only a natural person can become a member of an OPC which doesn’t apply in case of companies. Companies can themselves be members and own shares of the companies. Additionally, minors are prohibited by the law from becoming members or nominees of OPCs.
Conversion of One Person Company (OPCs) Into Other Companies
Regulations monitoring the formation of OPCs explicitly impede the conversion of OPCs into companies under Section 8, the ones that have philanthropic objectives. Until the expiry of two years from the date of their incorporation, OPCs can’t convert into other types of companies voluntarily.
Privileges of One Person Companies
One-Person Companies benefit from the following privileges and exemptions under the Companies Act:
OPCs don’t have to conduct annual general meetings.
Cash flow statements need not be included in their financial statements.
Directors could sign the annual returns too; a company secretary is not mandatorily required.
Provisions in regard to the independent directors are not applied to OPCs.
Directors can take home more remuneration as compared to other companies.
Solved Example on One Person Company
Q1: Does an OPC follow the principle of perpetual succession?
Ans: No, it does not. An OPC can reach its end with the death of its sole member.
Q2: OPC was recognized under the Companies Act, 1956. TRUE or FALSE?
Ans: FALSE. The concept of OPCs was introduced by the Companies Act, 2013.
FAQs on One Person Company
1. What are the benefits of an Individual Company?
An individual company incorporates the ownership of one person, so it has all the benefits a company can enjoy other than this has some rest from the provision of company law. The following are some of the benefits of the Individual Company.
It has a separate legal entity.
Shareholder / director liability is limited
The OPC system will pave the way for more efficient banking services
Legal status and public recognition of your business. It gives suppliers and customers a sense of business confidence.
The director and shareholder may be one person
In a death / disability company it can be successful with a nominee.
Exemptions found on various services under Company law.
2, What does basic compulsory compliance include?
At least one Board Meeting for each part of the calendar year and a time gap between two Board Meetings should not be less than 90 days.
Storage of appropriate account books.
Official review of financial statements.
The introduction of annual business tax before 30 September.
Submission of Financial Statements in Form AOC-4 and Annual Return with the proposed MGT 7-A form
Data allocation applies to OPC
Naming an OPC
Section 3 (1) (c) of the Act provides that the names of the ‘Individual Company’ must be listed below the company name in brackets wherever it appears.
Members and directors at OPC
The minimum and maximum number of members in the OPC may be only one. "In terms of Section 152 (1) of the Act, a person who is a member of the OPC is considered the First Director of the OPC until the directors (s) have been duly appointed by the member."
One can only be a member of one OPC.
"The minimum and maximum number of directors in the OPC may be one (1) and fifteen (15) respectively."
"In order to increase the number of directors by more than 15 directors, a special resolution must be passed by the OPC in that regard."
Appointed to OPC
The OPC should refer to one person as ‘appointed’ in the event of death, incapacity, etc.
be a member of the OPC;(b) be entitled to all OPC shares, as well
bear all the debts of the OPC.
However, the written consent of the Nominee to act as nominee must be obtained and submitted to the RoC at the time of filing with the MoA and the AoA.
The nominee may revoke his or her consent by giving written notice to the member only and to the OPC. Only one member nominates another person as nominee within 15 days of receiving notice of withdrawal.
OPC is required to include RoC:
notice of such revocation;
the name of the new nominee (Form No INC-4 and the fees as provided in the company rules (registration offices and payments), 2014), and
written consent of the new nominee (Form No. INC-3).
The above completion requirement must be met within 30 days of receipt of notice of withdrawal of prior nomination. Also, a nominee may be changed at any time by giving notice to the RoC.
The eligibility requirements for membership in only one OPC for a period of 100 years. and eighty days, that is, he shall withdraw his membership in any of the OPCs within one hundred and eighty days.
Board Meetings and AGM
OPC is considered to comply with Sec. 173, if at least one BoD meeting has been held in each part of the calendar year and the gap between the two meetings is not less than 90 days. Sections 173 and 174 (BoD Meeting Quorum) shall not apply to the OPC where there is only one director on its Board.
OPC does not have to be required by the AGM
3. What are OPC Financial Statements?
The OPC Financial Statement must be approved by the Board and requires only one director's signature to be submitted to the auditor.
The OPC should not amend the Cash Flow Statement as part of its financial statements.
A copy of that financial statement and other documents etc. must be submitted to the RoC within 180 days from the end of the financial year. The Board's report to be attached to the financial statements shall state, in the case of the OPC, a report containing explanations or comments by the Board on all merits, bookings or negative comments or excuses.