Non-Current Liabilities

In a company’s balance sheet, there are certain obligations which would become paid after a period of twelve months. These obligations are non-current liabilities, which are also known as long-term liabilities. 

Non current liabilities are closely matched with cash flow to determine whether a firm will be able to meet long-term financial obligations. Investors assess non-current liabilities to understand whether the company may be employing excessive leverage. 

Different ratios are used for assessing non-current liabilities; these include debt-to-capital ratio and debt-to-assets ratio.

Characteristics of Non-Current Liabilities 

The main features of non current liabilities are –

  • There is a past or current liability which puts a firm under obligation

  • Liabilities are in the form of borrowing 

  • When such an obligation is settled, it will lead to a decrease in a firm's assets

Non Current Liabilities Examples 

Examples of non current liabilities are mentioned in the following section –

Long term financial liabilities will fall under this category. It may arise from bond payable or bank loans which may be recorded in balance sheet in the form if amortised cost. 

Deferred tax liability qualifies as a non-current liability. A firm may use a straight-line method of depreciation for financial reporting. Such liability is created when gains or revenue are reflected on income statement as it becomes eligible to be taxed. 

Do You Know?

There is a particular order of listing liabilities in a company's balance sheet. Mainly, there are two categories of current liabilities and non current liabilities. Within current liabilities, the items would include – current portions of long-term debt, short-term notes payable, payroll liabilities, accounts payable, income tax payable, and other accrued expenses.

However, the order may vary in different companies. For instance, accounts payable may feature as the first item in a liability account. 

Non Current Liabilities List

List of non current liabilities are as under –

1. Long Term Loans

Loans that a firm will have to pay over a longer duration (which is likely to be more than one year) are considered to be long-term loans. Such loans are backed by securities and extended by conventional banking or financial institutions. 

Companies having high creditworthiness may avail such loans at a lower rate of interest. This loan obligation will fall under non-current liabilities in the balance sheet of a company.

2. Debentures 

Debentures are the most prominent example of non-current liabilities. It is primarily a form of long-term debt instruments. Firms offer these in the absence of any asset backing. It is supported by the reputation and creditworthiness of an organisation. 

Larger companies offer debentures with a purpose of securing funding. It amounts to non-current liabilities for a company, given that investors will be paid in due time, and not particularly within one year.

3. Deferred Tax Liabilities

The non-current liability of deferred tax is owed to the tax department by a company. The liability arises since there exists a difference between the time that the tax has to be paid and when it is collected.  

These liabilities indicated in the company's balance sheet give a future tax forecast for a firm. Settlement of the liabilities will cause a reduction in its net profit.

4. Bonds Payable

There is a higher degree of similarity between debentures and bonds payable. The point of difference is that bonds are supported by collateral or physical assets.

Bonds payable are categorised as non-current liabilities as it possesses the nature of long-term debt. It is issued by a firm to secure funding for itself. Investors take into account the assets supporting the bond. A firm will have to pay investors at a future specified date.

5. Long Term Lease Obligations

Long term lease obligations are payable after one year. Capital leases may fall under such obligations. Such arrangements are recorded under non-current liabilities in the balance sheet of a company, giving it an extended period for payment.

Companies are likely to pay for such leases in case of equipment, plant, and similar assets. The payment for rentals can be made after a considerable time.

6. Product Warranties

Product warranties extended by a company is an obligation that it has to meet if claims arise. Warranties may span across years, and in case of defects, the company may have to pay an aggrieved customer after a certain period. It is due to such deferred payment systems that product warranties are listed under non-current liabilities. 

Such liability is likely to be reported as costs for repair or replacement on product. However, the obligation of such payment will only arise if a claim is made within the period of warranty. 

7. Pension Benefit Obligations

The obligations of paying pension benefits to employees take effect after a considerable time. It has to be paid to employees only after retirement. Pension amount is accumulated till the point of retirement, the duration of which spans across years. 

These obligations are included within long-term liabilities, and a company will not have to pay it within twelve months. 

8. Other Non-Current Liabilities

Other non-current liabilities will consist of any such items that cannot be classified under the categories mentioned above. The specifications of such liabilities are recorded as noted in financial statements of a company. 

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FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are Non Current Liabilities?

Ans. The obligations which are not mandatory to be settled within one year are termed as non-current liabilities. These are recorded separate from current liabilities and undergoes a different classification in a firm’s balance sheet.

2. Mention the Characteristics of Non-Current Liabilities.

Ans. There are three main characteristics of non-current liabilities. It includes that the obligation may be of current or of past, obligation settlement will cause asset decrease, and liabilities are primarily a form of borrowing.

3. Name a Few Non-Current Liabilities.

Ans. Few non-current liabilities include – long term loans, debentures, deferred tax liabilities, bonds payable, long-term lease obligations, and pension obligations.