Liquid funds help a business in meeting its short-term expenses commitments. Liquidity can be defined as an organization’s ability to meet an expense or settle a liability towards its stakeholders, as and when it becomes due. It is a parameter that gives a picture of the solvency of the firm.
To measure the liquidity, we need to calculate the liquidity ratios. These ratios give a short-term answer as the creditors are interested in the current liquidity position of the entity. If the organization is not in a position to meet its short-term commitments, it has an adverse effect on its credit rating and credibility. If the organization is not able to honour its financial commitments, it can result in its bankruptcy or closure. The liquidity of the organization must neither be insufficient nor should it be excessive.
Quick Ratio or Acid test Ratio
Cash Ratio or Absolute Liquidity Ratio
Net Working Capital Ratio
Let’s look at these ratios in detail.
One of the most common ratios for measuring the short-term liquidity of the firm is the current ratio. This ratio is also called the working capital ratio. It measures whether the current assets of the firm are enough to pay the current liabilities or debts of the firm. This ratio keeps a margin of safety for any potential losses that might occur during the realization of the current assets. It can be calculated as the ratio between the Current Assets and Current Liabilities.
The ideal current ratio is 2:1 but it also depends on the characteristics of the current assets and current liabilities along with the nature of business of the firm. Let’s see the heads that are included under current assets and current liabilities.
Cash/ Bank Balances
Short term loans given
Short term Securities
Short Term Loans taken
Provision for Taxation
Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities
Current Assets = Sundry Debtors + Inventories + Cash-at-Bank + Cash-in-hand + Receivables + Loans and Advances + Advance Tax + Disposable Investments
Current Liabilities = Creditors + Short-term Loans + Bank Overdraft + Cash Credit + Outstanding expenses + Dividend payable + Provision for Taxation
Quick Ratio is also known as Acid-test Ratio. It is a measure of the liquidity calculated on the basis of the relationship between Quick Assets and Current Liabilities. It is used to calculate if the readily convertible quick funds are enough to pay the current debts. The ideal Quick Ratio or Acid-test Ratio is 1:1.
Quick Ratio= Quick Assets / Current Liabilities
Quick Assets = Current Assets – Inventories – Prepaid Expenses
The cash ratio is used to measure the absolute liquidity of the firm. It calculates whether a firm can use only its cash balances, bank balances, and marketable securities to pay its current debts. Inventory and Debtors are not included while calculating this ratio because there is no guarantee of their realization.
Cash Ratio Formula
Cash Ratio= Cash and Bank Balances + Marketable Securities + Current Investments / Current Liabilities
Net Working Capital Ratio
It is a measure of the cash flow and this ratio should be positive. This ratio is very important for the bankers as it helps them gauge if there is a financial crisis in the firm.
Net Working Capital Ratio Formula
Net Working Capital Ratio= Current Assets – Current Liabilities (exclude short-term bank borrowing)
1. Calculate the different liquidity ratios from the following particulars:
Current Ratio= Current Assets/ Current Liabilities
Current Assets = Sundry Debtors + Inventories + Cash-in-hand + Bills Receivable
Current Liabilities = Creditors + Bank Overdraft
Current Assets= 300,000 + 150,000+ 50,000+ 30,000= 530,000
Current Liabilities = 350,000+ 30,000= 380,000
Current Ratio= 530,000 / 400,000= 1.3 :1
Quick Ratio or Acid Test Ratio= Quick Assets / Current Liabilities
Quick Assets = Current Assets – Inventories
Quick Assets= 530,000 - 150,000= 380,000
Quick Ratio or Acid Test Ratio= 380,000 / 380,000 = 1:1
Cash Ratio = Cash Balance / Current Liabilities
Cash Ratio = 50,000 / 380,000= 0.13:1
Net Working Capital Ratio = Current Assets – Current Liabilities (exclude short-term bank borrowing)
Net Working Capital Ratio = 530,000- 350,000= 180,000
Q1. What is the difference between the Current Ratio and the Quick Ratio?
Ans. The quick ratio is considered a better liquidity ratio formula and a better measure of a firm’s liquidity than the current ratio. Quick ratio is used to calculate if the readily convertible quick funds are enough to pay the current debts. This ratio is calculated by using the quick assets that include only cash and near-cash or readily convertible into cash assets. It does not include inventories as they cannot be readily converted into cash. Prepaid expenses are also not included as they are paid in advance and cannot be converted into cash.
Q2. What are Liquidity Coverage Ratio and Statutory Liquidity Ratio?
Ans. The liquidity coverage ratio requires the banks to hold a sufficient amount of high-quality liquid assets to fund cash outflows for 30 days. Liquidity coverage ratio is similar to liquidity ratios as it is also a measure of the company’s ability to meet its short-term financial obligations. Statutory Liquidity Ratio is the ratio of liquid assets to Net Demand and Time Liabilities (NDTL).