What is LPG?
LPG refers to Liberalization, Privatization, and Globalization. When India under its New Economic Policy approached the International Banks for developing the country, they suggested that the government should open towards restrictions on trade which is mostly done by the private sectors in between India and other countries. After the suggestion put forward by the International Banks, the Indian Government announced New Economic Policy or NEP. This policy consisted of an extensive range of reforms. These measures are broadly classified into two groups- structural reforms and stabilization measures.
The objective of structural measures was to develop international competitiveness. Moreover, the measures aimed to eliminate the rigidity in various sections of the country's economy. In stabilization measures, the aim was to rectify and correct the existing weakness developed in controlling the inflation and balance of payments. Both sets of measures were taken for a short-term period.
The stabilization measure included Liberalization, Privatization, and Globalization. Under this measure, the balance of payment was enabled to record all forms of economic transactions of a country with the rest of the world in a year. In such a scenario, inflation refers to the growth of prices in goods and services over a particular period.
The objective of liberalization was to put an end to those rigidities and restrictions that were acting as a hindrance to the growth of the country. Further, in this approach, the Government was expected to be flexible with its regulation in the nation.
The objectives of this policy were to enhance the competition among the domestic industries and encourage international trade with planned imports and exports. Moreover, it aimed at increasing international technology and capital. Also, this policy was expected to expand the international market frontier of the nation and reduce the burden of debt in the country.
The second policy of the Stabilization Measure is Privatization. This policy aims to expand the domination of private sector companies and reduce the control of the public sectors. Thus, the Government-owned enterprise will have less ownership. Besides these Government companies can be converted into private sector companies with two approaches. These approaches are by withdrawing the control of the Government in the public sector company and by disinvesting. There are three forms of Privatization which are a strategic sale, partial sale, and token privatization. In the strategic sale or denationalization, the Government needs to deliver 100% of productive resources ownership to the owners of the private companies.
The Partial Sale or Partial privatization owns a minimum of 50% ownership with the help of the transfer of shares. They would, therefore, own the majority of the shares and would have control of the autonomy and functioning of the company. In the token or the deficit privatization, the Government would have to disinvest the share capital by up to 5-10% in order to meet the shortage in the budget. This policy, therefore, aims to improve the financial situation in the country and deduct the work pressure of the public sector companies. Moreover, funds could be raised from the disinvestment. With the reduced work pressure the efficiency of the public sector would automatically increase and yield better quality of goods and services for the use of consumers.
In this policy, the country's economy is expected to grow with the help of the global economy. This means that the primary focus would be on foreign trade and institutional and private investments. It is the third and the last policy that is to be implemented. The objective of this phenomenon is to develop and independent the world with the implication of suitable strategies. It is the attempt to create a world where the requirement of one country can be driven and turned into one large economy. One of the major outcomes of Globalization is outsourcing.
Outsourcing means an enterprise can employ professionals from other countries to reach a particular goal. There is a lot of contractual work that is being outsourced in the field of Information Technology leading to its development. This has opened new avenues for a lot of private sectors and Indian skills are regarded as the most effective and vibrant across the globe. The low wage rate and dedicated employees have made India one of the constructive nations suitable for international outsourcing.
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