Instruments of Monetary Policy and The Reserve Bank of India

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Instruments of Monetary Policy

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Monetary policy is a policy that is an action taken by the Central Bank regarding the activities related in monetary terms. They might be cash, credit, ledgers, mortgage, bonds, debentures, loans, check money markets, etc. The policy is designed by the Central Bank of that particular Nation to regulate the economic imbalances either may be inflation or deflation.

The basic aims of the monitor policy are as follows:

  • To regulate inflation.

  • To decrease the level of unemployment.

  • To increase long term interest rates.

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Tools of Monetary Policy in India

The Central bank designed the tools of monetary policy. Several central banks will create a common three tools for monetary policy irrespective of the nation. So the basic tools of monetary policy in India are:

Discount Rates

The discount rate is one of the basic terms of monetary policy. The monetary policy aims to stabilize and regulate the nation's economy, which can be fulfilled by a change in discount rates. If the discount rate is reduced, the investors can get less money and take borrows from other Banks. It helps any increase in the liquidity of cash. It creates growth in the economy. If the discount rate is the high cover, all the procedures are vice versa.

Requirement of Reserves

Every nation has to maintain some reserves of all kinds of resources, especially financial resources. To maintain these reserves, the government should understand the basic requirement of that particular country. 10 to these results are certain portions of the available funds or investments to the reserve bank. As a result, the Bank of India holds a specific part of the existing money in the form of cash. It is used to lend its customers and also for businesses. It keeps reserves from the deposits and provides in the form of loans. It also earns some money which may help to maintain the necessities of the Central Bank and the subsidiary Banks.

Growth in Open Market Operations

We all know that a market is a place where we can buy and sell goods. Here the open market refers to the buying and selling of securities from various countries. This is another tool of monetary policy that is designed for trading activity, and it is directed and regulated by the various countries of central banks of that particular Nation with which we make a deal.

What are the Instruments of Monetary Policy?

Instruments of monetary policy in India are categorized into two types. One is qualitative, and the other one is quantitative instruments. These are designed based on the toons of monetary policy which is prescribed by The Reserve Bank of India. Instruments of monetary and credit control will act as an excellent weapon for the country to regulate the demand and supply of resources to that particular nation. So, they have designed these instruments.

Qualitative Instruments

  • Credit Rationing.

  • Licensing.

  • Requirement of margins.

  • Dynamic interest rates.

  • The consumer rate is to be regulated.

Quantitative Instruments

  • Open market operations.

  • Bank rates.

  • Repo rates and reverse repo rates.

  • Liquidity.

  • Change in requirement.

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Who Controls the Monetary Policy in India?

The reserve bank of India controls the monetary policy in India. Because it is the central bank of our nation. The instruments of the monetary policy of RBI, which we have discussed above can help the RBI to control the money supply and the flow of money to various activities of the nation.

RBI is the central body of India which was established in 1935.it takes care of all the financial transactions and regulates the currency of the country. It provides a set of tools and instruments to maintain monetary policy transparently.

How Does the RBI Control the Money Supply in the Economy?

The main objective of the hardware is to control the money supply in the economy to maintain its stability because the Nations should stand properly only with efficient resources. The RBI uses different tools and instruments like cash reserve ratio, statutory liquidity ratio, changes in repo rate and reverse report, moral suasion, etc. several instruments are in the tools used to maintain the monetary policy.


Hunts it is clear that the monetary policy is a proforma or a set of rules imposed by The reserve bank of India to maintain stability in the growth of the economy. The RBI needs to monitor all the financial transactions in all its forms and to keep up the sufficiency of currency without degrading its value.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. Distinguish Between Monetary Policy and Fiscal Policy?

Ans: Monetary policy is a policy that is regulated by the Central Bank of the nation to achieve macroeconomic functions; it helps to maintain stable growth in the economy. On the other hand, fiscal policy is a policy that is regulated by the federal government. It completely deals with taxation and investment in other country securities.

Q2. How Many Times Does the RBI Announce a Monetary Policy for a Year?

Ans: The RBA has different departments. The major sections which will decide monetary policy are-one are the monetary policy committee, and the other is the financial Market committee. These two committees will have to meet with the monetary policy department and then discuss the day-to-day variations. As the monetary policy committee consists of four members, each one has an opportunity to vote. Also l the governor will have a second casting vote.

By considering all these votes, the monetary policy may decide a maximum of four times per year. This might be changed according to the sudden situations and reformations of various governments. The governor plays a major role in every transaction and decision of RBI because he is the head of the reserve bank of India.

Q3. How Many Types of Monetary Policy are There?

Ans: We have two different types.

  • Contractionary monetary policy. It is used to decrease the circulation of money by selling government bonds, securities, change in interest rates, etc.

  • Expansionary monetary policy. It is in contrast to the above policy. It is used to increase the money supply by decreasing all financial activities like reducing interest rates, lowering trading activities, etc.