Monetary policy is a policy that is an action taken by the Central Bank regarding the activities related in monetary terms. They might be cash, credit, ledgers, mortgage, bonds, debentures, loans, check money markets, etc. The policy is designed by the Central Bank of that particular Nation to regulate the economic imbalances either may be inflation or deflation.
We will know about the monetary policy in this section in detail.
What are the basic aims of monetary policy?
The basic aim of the monetary policy are as follows:
Tools of Monetary Policy in India
The Central bank designed the tools of monetary policy. Several central banks will create a common three tools for monetary policy irrespective of the nation. So the basic tools of monetary policy in India are:
The discount rate is one of the basic terms of monetary policy. The monetary policy aims to stabilize and regulate the nation's economy, which can be fulfilled by a change in discount rates. If the discount rate is reduced, the investors can get less money and take loans from other Banks. It helps any increase in the liquidity of cash. It creates growth in the economy. If the discount rate is high, all the procedures are vice versa.
Requirement of Reserves
Every nation has to maintain some reserves of all kinds of resources, especially financial resources. To maintain these reserves, the government should understand the basic requirements of that particular country. 10 to these results are certain portions of the available funds or investments to the reserve bank. As a result, the Bank of India holds a specific part of the existing money in the form of cash. It is used to lend its customers and also for businesses. It keeps reserves from the deposits and provides them in the form of loans. It also earns some money which may help to maintain the necessities of the Central Bank and the subsidiary Banks.
Growth in Open Market Operations
We all know that a market is a place where we can buy and sell goods. Here the open market refers to the buying and selling of securities from various countries. This is another tool of monetary policy that is designed for trading activity, and it is directed and regulated by the various countries of central banks of that particular Nation with which we make a deal.
What are the Instruments of Monetary Policy?
Instruments of monetary policy in India are categorized into two types. One is qualitative, and the other one is quantitative instruments. These are designed based on the toons of monetary policy which is prescribed by The Reserve Bank of India. Instruments of monetary and credit control will act as an excellent weapon for the country to regulate the demand and supply of resources to that particular nation. So, they have designed these instruments.
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Who Controls the Monetary Policy in India?
The Reserve Bank of India controls the monetary policy in India. Because it is the central bank of our nation. The instruments of the monetary policy of the RBI, which we have discussed above, can help the RBI to control the money supply and the flow of money to various activities of the nation.
RBI is the central body of India which was established in 1935.it takes care of all the financial transactions and regulates the currency of the country. It provides a set of tools and instruments to maintain monetary policy transparently.
How does the RBI Control the Money Supply in the Economy?
The main objective of the hardware is to control the money supply in the economy to maintain its stability because the Nations should stand properly only with efficient resources. The RBI uses different tools and instruments like cash reserve ratio, statutory liquidity ratio, changes in repo rate and reverse report, moral suasion, etc. several instruments are in the tools used to maintain the monetary policy.
Objectives of Monetary Policy
One of the most important functions Of RBI is to control the bank credit expansion and supply of money. And special attention is paid to seasonal credit requirements without affecting the stability.
Bringing in Price stability also promotes the development of the country’s economy. However, the central focus must facilitate an environment favorable to architecture. This helps the development projects to run smoothly without affecting the price stability.
The main aim here is to increase the productivity of investment without affecting non-essential fixed investment.
Monetary authorities hold rights over decisions for assigning credits to sectors and borrowers. This policy is decided over a specified percentage in order to allocate to desired people
The central bank pays attention to efficiency to incorporate structural changes. These structural changes include interest rates, operation constraints, and new money market instruments.
Reducing rigidity helps to provide considerable autonomy and a sense of flexibility at work. This helps to bring in a competitive environment and diversification among work cultures. Moreover, control over the financial system is maintained and prudence in systems is observed.
Overloading stocks and products getting expired often results in the sickness of organizational units. And hence to avoid these habits, the monetary authority restricts forming inventories by giving a major highlight to prevent idle money in the market.
Monetary Policy Operations
Monetary policy is managed by the Central Bank Of the country. In the case of India, it is managed by the Reserve Bank of India. The operations that come under this policy are as follows:
Stability of price
Balance of payment
Stable exchange rate
Key Indicators of Monetary Policy
There are various factors associated with monetary policy. Though it is managed by the Reserve Bank of India it overall affects the country and its economy. According to 2020 report following are the key indicator of the monetary policy:
Monetary Policy Committee
For any organizational work, a good committee is an important requirement. And when it comes to the committee for monetary policy the following people are selected at some specific designations
Governor of Reserve Bank of India as chairperson
The deputy governor of the Reserve Bank of India as in charge of monetary policy
One officer from the Reserve Bank of India
Actions of renowned person experts in their own field such as professor research Senior Advisors or committee members.
The primary job of this committee is to observe and manage the daily liquidity work so that the target decides which weighted average Call money rate or WACR is observed.
The Monetary Policy Framework
The reserve bank of India holds full rights to manage and control the monetary policy framework for the county.
The framework aims to provide the following:
And once, this repo rate is announced, the RBI authority manages day to day appropriate actions with an aim to operate the target.
This framework is tuned and revised accordingly by looking at the market prospectus.
Hunts it is clear that the monetary policy is a proforma or a set of rules imposed by The Reserve bank of India to maintain stability in the growth of the economy. The RBI needs to monitor all the financial transactions in all its forms and to keep up the sufficiency of currency without degrading its value.