Declaration of Human Rights – An Introduction
We can understand the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) as an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). The document is a layout of all the fundamental rights of human beings. The UNGA accepted the Declaration of Human Rights during the early days of its inception, on 10th December 1948. The UDHR is rightly deemed as a milestone in the history of human rights. The document was drafted by personnel of varied backgrounds and enriched with a diverse and holistic view of human rights. The main objective of the UDHR is to preserve, protect, and enshrine the fundamental human rights that all humans are entitled to irrespective of their caste, creed, race, gender, nationality, and so forth. You can know more about the document through the Universal Declaration of Human Rights PDF.
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What is UDHR?
The Declaration of Human Rights is a holistic document that recognizes the various rights that human beings are entitled to by virtue of simply being humans. It has acted as a flag-bearer for more than seventy consequent treaties on human rights in the United Nations that have global and regional applicability. Let us now dovetail into the history of UDHR.
The UDHR adopted by the General Assembly of United Nations as the 27th Resolution on 10th December 1948 at Paris. 58 UN members voted at the time, and 48 voted in favor of the document, eight abstained, and two did not vote. The composition comprises 30 articles that meticulously describe individual rights inherent, inalienable, and applicable to all human beings. The document commits all signatory nations to recognize and legitimize that all humans are born free, are equal in dignity, and deserve equal rights. The document is revolutionary for devising a Universalist language that was never seen before in human history. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights PDF has all the details of the 30 articles.
The United Declaration of Human Rights PDF Articles
Let us now observe the various UDHR articles.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 1 states that all human beings are born free and equal. They have equal rights and integrity.
Article 2 mentions that all humans have rights and freedoms that they are entitled to irrespective of creed, color, racial origin, etc.
Article 3 is related to the right to life, liberty, and security.
Article 4 delegitimizes slavery in all forms.
The International Declaration of Human Rights 1948 article 5 asserts that no human shall be subjected to degradation.
Article 6 states that everyone shall be recognized as a person by the law.
Article 7 mentions that everyone is equal before the law.
Article 8 forges that every person has the right to effective judicial remedies.
Article 9 recognizes that no person shall be subjected to arbitrary detention.
Article 10 maintains that every human is entitled to an unbiased tribunal's fair and accessible public hearing.
Article 11 iterates that everyone charged with offenses shall be presumed innocent until proven guilty by a court of law.
Article 12 identifies the right to privacy.
Article 13 legitimizes the right to free movement.
Article 14 maintains that every person has the right to seek asylum in another country.
Article 15 is related to the right to a nationality.
The Article 16 Universal Declaration of Human Rights asserts that men and women of legal age can marry anyone of their choice, and caste, class, race, etc., should not be a barrier. It also reiterates the family as the organic and fundamental group entitled to protection by society and the state.
Article 17 talks about the universal right to own property.
As per Article 18 of the document, everyone is entitled to freedom of thought, religion, and conscience.
Article 19 is associated with the freedom of expression.
Article 20 is related to the right to assemble peacefully and be a part of any organization.
Article 21 is related to the right to take part in public office and participate in selecting government representatives through direct or indirect processes.
Article 22 of the document enshrines the right to social security.
Article 23 recognizes the right to work and freedom of choice of employment.
Article 24 is the right that all people deserve leisure and rest.
Article 25 recognizes the right to an adequate standard of living.
Article 26 is the right to education.
Article 27 related to the right to participate freely in cultural life and enjoy arts and scientific advancements.
Article 28 of the document talks about the universal entitlement to the international socio-political order.
Article 29 states that everyone is entitled to their full personal development.
Lastly, Article 30 states that no one should manipulate their universal rights to destroy the rights of another.
As such, we can discuss the many nitty-gritty of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. If you want to know more, you can also look into the UN Charter and human rights.
FAQs on Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
1. What is the UN Declaration of Human Rights Article 23?
Ans. The UDHR Article 23 is related to work and employment. The article echoes the following sentiments -
Everyone is entitled to the right to work, and they also have the freedom to choose any employment. Every human shall be extended just and favorable working conditions coupled with protection against unemployment. The article denounces discrimination in the workplace and reiterates that everyone has the right to favorable remuneration.
Lastly, the article also legitimizes the right to form trade unions and workers' associations.
2. What is written in the preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?
Ans. The preamble of the UDHR mentions that dignity, freedom, and equality are inalienable to all humans by virtue of them being humans. The human community is premised on the fundamental principles of justice, liberty, and fraternity, and governing bodies should make concerted efforts to uphold these values.
3. Who are the two actors who played a pivotal role in making women's rights a part of UDHR?
Ans. Hansa Mehta and Eleanor Roosevelt played pioneering in making women's rights an intrinsic part of UDHR.