If all of your classmates are playing in the playground and nobody is interested in joining you, then how will you feel? You will feel excluded, right. It may be happening because of your colour, language, the way you talk/walk/eat or different class levels, etc. When you don't meet the standards made by the people around you, you feel excluded there. It happens in a social environment as well. in this article, we'll learn what is Marginalisation, the concept of Marginalisation in India, Marginalised sections of society, etc. These notes will help the students of Class 8 in getting Chapter 7 Understanding Marginalisation.
Meaning of Socially Marginalised
When some people or communities in the social environment experience the feeling of being excluded from society, it is termed as socially Marginalised. in society, Marginalisation can be because of the different languages they speak, different customs or cultures they follow, different religions or ethnic or regional communities, different colours or clothing styles, etc. They can also be Marginalised in terms of their caste and class or rich and poor. These people are excluded socially, politically, economically, legally, etc.
Causes of Marginalisation in India
There are multiple reasons for Marginalisation which are written below:
Sexual orientation and gender
Religion or ethnicity
Geography or history
Less representation in political spheres
Different culture or rituals
Different language or clothing
Caste and Class
Poverty or Race
List of Marginalised Groups in India
Following are the examples of marginalized groups in India:
There are a lot of marginalized communities in India. in this article, we will discuss two socially marginalized communities ie. Adivasis and the Muslim community.
Adivasis and Marginalisation
The first Marginalised group we will discuss is the Adivasis who are the original inhabitants of the region and face different kinds of Marginalisation.
Who are Adivasis?
Adivasis are the people who are the original inhabitants of a region and live in close connection with nature. Their main livelihood is dependent on the forests. They are also called Tribals. There are more than 500 tribal groups present in India and all are different or similar to each other in different ways. They practice different tribal religions. They worship nature and animal spirits as well. They have their own unique languages in which Santhali is the major tribal speaking language and also have significant published material in this language offline or online.
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Adivasis and Stereotyping
We always showcase the tribals in a particular way most of the time as shown in the movies or as depicted in the novels. But in reality, we know very little about their real lives. They are often blamed for lack of development, living in the forests, for being backwards & primitive & non-educated people, etc. All these stereotypes lead to cause discrimination against them.
Adivasis used to live in forests from the beginning. in the past, empires used to depend upon them for forest resources because they had extreme knowledge about the usage of their regional natural resources. Adivasis have been forced to move from their mainland to other places to work in plantations or construction sites with the implementation of the rules or restrictions on the forests by the State. Nowadays they do not have direct access to the forest but they do have some rights by the state related to the forests because their lives and livelihoods are dependent on the forest produce.
Adivasis sometimes live in areas full of resources. More than 50% of people who are displaced in such areas are tribals. Their lands have gone under construction or mining or water sites etc. Even their lands have also been militarised in North East India. Not only this, they have been evicted from the places where you find national parks or wildlife sanctuaries today. Losing access to all of their lands and sources of livelihood, they are being forced to move to the cities where they have been discriminated against in all the spheres for being different. All these reasons lead to the Marginalisation of tribal community.
Minorities and Marginalisation
Minorities are those groups or communities which are less in population as compared to others. They can be religious or linguistics based minorities.
Muslims and Marginalisation
The Muslim community is considered as marginalized in India because of the long years of deprivation of social, economic and political developments. They are 14.2% of India's total population. Observe the following tables which are taken from official reports of the Government of India to understand the conditions of the Muslim community in India as compared to others.
1. Access to Basic Amenities, 2008-09
2. Literacy Rate
3. Public Employment of Muslims
These tables clearly depict how the Muslim community is lagging behind in all the spheres. The marginalization experienced by them has other factors as well as the customs and practices which do not match with others such as wearing burqa or fez, having a long beard, etc. All these factors and their appearance makes them different from others which leads to discrimination against them.
Did You Know?
There are around 645 tribes in India having different cultures, languages and customs. The Gonds are the largest tribe in India. There are no scheduled tribes in the States of Punjab and Haryana and Chandigarh, Delhi, and Puducherry.
In this article, we have covered the introduction of marginalization, list of marginalized groups in India with an explanation of two social marginalized groups of India. The concept of Marginalisation is fully explained here with examples and facts. This chapter will help the students of Class 8 in understanding Marginalisation.