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Understanding Marginalisation

Last updated date: 18th Apr 2024
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Introduction to Understanding Marginalisation

Being marginalized is being compelled to live on the edges or on the periphery of things, rather than in the center. Many people across the globe experience exclusion in the social environment in every sphere of their life. This exclusion could be due to external or internal differences. For eg -speaking a different language have distinct customs, or belonging to a different religious group than the majority. People can suffer prejudices because of their economic status. People belonging to lower strata of society are perceived as less human than others. Marginalized groups are sometimes viewed with animosity and terror.

Because of their perception of difference and exclusion, communities are unable to utilize the resources and opportunities available. They feel helpless and disadvantaged in comparison to more wealthy and dominating elements of society that own land, are rich, well-educated, and politically influential. Just because of this marginalization is prevalent all over India. Certain groups in society are marginalized due to a combination of economic, social, cultural, and political circumstances.

Marginalized Communities in India 

Adivasis- Literally "original dwellers" - are communities that have lived, and frequently still live, in close proximity to woods.  The majority of India's population is Adivasi, and many of the country's most powerful people are Adivasi. The area, where large mining and industrial centers like  Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro, and Bhilai are Adivasi regions. As well as others, Adivasis are a diverse group. There are around 500 separate Adivasi communities in India.

Adivasis are classified as Scheduled Tribes by the Indian government. Tribes that have been Scheduled are frequently grouped with Scheduled Castes are included under this category. 

Adivasis follow a variety of tribal religions other than Islam, Hinduism, and Christianity. These rituals frequently include the worship of ancestors, local spirits, and nature spirits, with the latter being the most common. They prefer to live within the dwelling in a variety of landscape locations:  "mountain spirits," "river spirits," "animal spirits," and so on.

Adivasis have a unique language possibly old as Sanskrit. We usually showcase' Adivasi communities in India in specific ways. As a result, mainstream media and literature. Adivasi is almost always portrayed in stereotyped ways.

Through their dancing, they wear brightly coloured costumes and accessories.

Aside from that, it appears that we know very little about the realities their entire lives. This frequently leads to individuals believing the wrong thing. they're strange, primitive, and backward.

Scheduled Castes- Scheduled castes are Hindu caste sub-communities that have historically endured deprivation, discrimination, and social isolation in India due to their perceived 'poor status.' 

Untouchability has always been a part of our culture. “Untouchables" was another term used to describe the avarna communities. They were barred from drinking from communal water sources, living in or visiting regions frequented by "higher castes," and endured social and economic isolation, with many rights and benefits denied to them that those born into savarna castes consider "basic rights."

Schedule Tribes - According to the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, India has over 700 Scheduled Tribes. The definition for "Scheduled Tribes" has been kept from the 1931 Census, just like the term for Scheduled Castes, which was carried over from British-era legislation.

The features that distinguish Scheduled Tribe communities in our country from other tribes are primitiveness, geographical isolation, shyness, and social, educational.

Muslims -Muslims make up 14.2% of India's population, according to the 2011 census, and are regarded as a marginalized community in India today since, in comparison to other ethnicities, they have a lower literacy rate.

They have been denied the blessings of socioeconomic growth for many years.

Muslims' economic and social marginalization takes on other dimensions. Muslim customs and behaviours, like those of other minorities, are occasionally misunderstood.

Dalits and other Marginalized Communities- They are hardly represented in top positions even in the media. According to a 2019 survey, 106 of the 121 newsroom leadership positions studied were held by upper castes, five by other backward classes, and six by members of minority groups. Upper-caste anchors make about 75% of those who moderate arguments on television. There wasn't a single Dalit, Adivasi, or OBC in the room.

Women- Marginalization is one of the forms of gender inequality under various economic conditions and under the influence of unique historical, cultural, legal, and religious elements. To put it another way, women may be excluded from some jobs and occupations, incorporated into others, and marginalized in yet others. In every place and society, they are always marginalized in comparison to men.

All of this demonstrates that, despite improvements, India's information ecology still favors the upper castes. Even when they are well-intentioned and sensitive, their understanding of India on the ground is distant from reality, just as many political figures from the rural belt do not appear to grasp gender discrimination. It is past time for India's liberals and leftists to recognise caste.

FAQs on Understanding Marginalisation

1. What do you Mean by Socially Marginalized? What are its Causes?

If some people or communities in the social environment experience the feeling of being excluded from society, it is termed as socially marginalized. in society, marginalization can be because of the different languages they speak, different customs or cultures they follow, different religions or ethnic or regional communities, different colours or clothing styles, etc. They can also be marginalized in terms of their caste and class or rich and poor. These people are excluded socially, politically, economically, legally, etc. The causes of social marginalization are sexual orientation and gender, religion or ethnicity, geography or history, less representation in political spheres, different cultures or rituals, different language or clothing, caste and class, poverty or race, etc.

2. Write a Short Note on One Marginalized Group.

Adivasis are the people who are the original inhabitants of a region and live in close connection with nature. Their main livelihood is dependent on the forests. They are also called Tribals. There are more than 500 tribal groups present in India and all are different or similar to each other in different ways. They practice different tribal religions. They worship nature and animal spirits as well. They have their own unique languages in which Santhali is the major tribal speaking language and also have significant published material in this language offline or online. Their lands and sources of livelihood have been taken for construction or mining sites etc which leads to their displacement to cities for work which leads to the discrimination of Adivasis in all the spheres.