Usually, there are two parts of the country. One is Urban areas and the other is rural areas and various numbers of livelihood opportunities are available there in these areas as per the requirements or availability. Here in this article, we will be going to talk about the rural livelihoods, what are the various sources of livelihood that are present in rural areas for the people to live their lives. Rural livelihoods mean sources of income for rural people to live their lives. This article will help the students to understand this concept and create a base for rural India.
Livelihood Opportunities in Rural Areas
There are various ways in which people can earn their livelihood in rural areas. Rural areas are those areas which are not yet that much developed as per the modern technology and where there are very less number of factories and Industries and a few modern jobs. Whenever we think of rural India, what picture does come to our minds? A village, farmer, crops, livestock, etc. There are various farm and non-farm activities that are present which people generally use in rural areas to live their lives.
Types of Livelihood Opportunities in Rural India
65.53% out of the total population of India lives in rural areas as per the data of 2019. There are various types of livelihood opportunities in rural India which are given below:
This is the major source of livelihood in rural India but not the only one. Farmers do agricultural activities in their own lands and do sowing, weeding and harvesting, etc and earn the profits at the end. Sometimes because of bad weather or monsoon, their crops get destroyed and they have to suffer a lot. They have to depend on other sources of income as well like dairy business etc.
Poultry or Dairy Business
People also conduct these businesses in rural areas as they usually keep livestock etc. They used to sell the milk of cows, buffalo or goats, etc. Not only this, but beekeeping is also done in rural areas most frequently for the production of honey.
These are those persons who do not own agricultural land and they used to work on other farmers' lands during the specific season. They do not own permanent jobs but seasonal jobs like during sowing or harvesting season. Remaining days of the year, they are unemployed which leads to seasonal unemployment.
There are rich farmers as well in the villages who own larger pieces of land and hire a lot of people to work or sometimes own mills or industries as well. These rich farmers lend money to other people as well and do exploitation of the weaker society by charging a large sum of interest.
Fishing is also the major source of income for those who live along with the coastal areas. It is done for domestic and commercial purposes. Some fishermen also do exports as well.
India has a huge heritage and culture with huge talent in every corner of the country. Handicrafts are also a great source of income in rural areas which are made by hands such as pottery making, basket making, weaving, printing, painting, etc. The livelihood opportunities in handicrafts depend upon the heritage and culture of the region and also on the skills of the person. Most of the handcrafted items are costly and attract a number of tourists in the tourist places of India.
Small and Cottage Industries
These are the industries that are run in the houses and family members contribute to that business such as pottery or basket making, furniture, shawls, mats, caps, woollen or crochet work, etc. There is no need for large capital for investment or big land facilities to start any small business and even no need occurs to hire labourers as well because family members work in this which saves the cost of hiring labour from the outside.
Other Sources of Income
There are a lot of other sources of income as well in rural areas such as
Silk production of wool production by keeping silkworms and sheep etc.
Teaching opportunities for educated people.
Educated youth also go to cities for work.
Having small general or grocery shops.
Woodcutting or selling wood.
Jute bags making or handmade clothes.
Barber, doctor, nurse, painter, electrician, etc. Jobs profiles are also present there in rural areas.
Brick making on a larger scale.