Dhristi JEE 2022-24

What is Tin Oxide and What are its Types?

You may be familiar with a lot of chemicals and you may even be using many of those. One such chemical is Tin Oxide. It has two types viz; Tin Monoxide and Tin Dioxide. In this article, we are going to cover the properties, uses and preparation of both these types. 


Tin oxide is an inorganic compound composed of tin and oxygen. Tin belongs to the fourteenth group of the modern periodic table. Another name of tin is stannum. Tin generally forms two types of oxides, one is stannous oxide and another one is stannic oxide. In this article, we will discuss the types of tin oxides, SnO2 compound name, SnO2 chemical name, tin oxide formula, and SnO2 name.


Types of Tin Oxide

Tin forms two types of oxides:

  1. Tin monoxide

  2. Tin Dioxide

 

1. Tin Monoxide - 

Tin monoxide is also known as stannous oxide. Tin monoxide is an inorganic compound composed of one tin and one oxygen element. The tin oxide formula is SnO. The oxidation state of the tin in this compound is +2. Therefore it is represented as tin (II) oxide. This compound exists in two forms; a stable form bluish-black in color while another one is the metastable form also known as red form.

 

Properties of Tin (II) Oxide

Physical Properties of Tin Oxide

  • Tin (II) oxide exists in the solid- crystalline form.

  • It appears bluish-black in color.

  • The melting point of tin (II) oxide is 1976℉.

  • The density of this is 6.45 g/cm3.

  • Tin (II) oxide is not soluble in water.

 

Tin (II) Oxide Structure

The tetragonal PbO layer structure of black -SnO contains four coordinate square pyramidal tin atoms. The rare mineral romarchite is found in nature in this form. The asymmetry is commonly attributed to a sterically active lone pair, but electron density calculations reveal that it is caused by an antibonding interaction between the Sn(5s) and O(2p) orbitals. The lone pair's electrical structure and chemistry define the majority of the material's properties.


In SnO, non-stoichiometry has been observed.


Between 2.5 and 3 eV has been measured as the electronic bandgap.

le size.

 

Preparation of  Tin (II) Oxide

Heating the tin(II) oxide hydrate, SnO x H2O (x1),  which  forms  when  a  tin(II)  salt  reacts  with an alkali hydroxide such as NaOH, produces blue-black SnO.


The precipitate formed by the action of aqueous ammonia on a tin(II) salt can be gently heated to generate metastable, crimson SnO.


In the laboratory, SnO can be made as a pure material by heating tin(II) oxalate (stannous oxalate) in the absence of air or under a CO2 environment. 


This process can also be used to make ferrous oxide and manganese oxide.


SnC2O4·2H2O → SnO + CO2 + CO + 2 H2O


SnO2 is formed when tin(II) oxide burns in the air with a dull green flame.


2 SnO + O2 → 2 SnO2 


When heated in an inert environment, disproportionation occurs, resulting in the 

formation of Sn metal and Sn3O4, which then reacts to form SnO2 and Sn metal.


4SnO → Sn3O4 + Sn;  Sn3O4 → 2SnO2 + Sn


SnO is amphoteric, forming tin(II) salts in strong acids and stannites containing Sn(OH)3 in strong bases. It forms the ionic complexes Sn(OH2)32+ and Sn(OH)(OH2)2+ when dissolved in strong acid solutions, and Sn3(OH)42+ when dissolved in less acid solutions. Anhydrous stannites, such as K2Sn2O3 and K2SnO2, are also known. To reduce the copper (I) to metallic clusters in the preparation of copper ruby glass, SnO is used as a reducing agent. 


2. Tin Dioxide- 

SnO2's name stands for Tin dioxide. Tin dioxide is also known as stannic oxide. Tin dioxide is an inorganic compound composed of one tin and two oxygen elements. SnO2 chemical name is a stannic oxide or tin (IV) oxide. The tin oxide formula for this oxide is SnO2. The oxidation state of the tin in this compound is +4. Therefore it is represented as tin (IV) oxide. Tin (IV) oxide also occurs in the mineral form in the earth’s crust. The mineral form of tin (IV) oxide is cassiterite. This mineral is one of the important and main ores of tin. SnO2 compound name represents the compounds of tin (IV) oxide which exist in ionic or covalent form.

 

Properties of Tin (IV) Oxide

Physical Properties of Tin (IV) Oxide

  • Tin (IV) oxide exists in solid form.

  • The color of tin (IV) oxide is colorless.

  • The melting point of tin (IV) oxide is 2966℉.

  • The density of this is 6.95 g/cm3.

  • Tin (IV) oxide is not soluble in water.

 

Tin (IV) Oxide Structure

The rutile structure crystallizes using tin(IV) oxide. As a result, the tin atoms have six coordinates while the oxygen atoms have three. SnO2 is commonly thought of as an n-type semiconductor that lacks oxygen.


Stannic acid is the name given to the hydrous forms of SnO2. These materials appear to be hydrated SnO2 particles with a composition that reflects particle size.


Chemical Properties of Tin (IV) Oxide

  • Tin (IV) oxide is thermally more stable than the SnO.

  • Tin (IV) oxide is amphoteric in nature. It reacts with acid as well as with base.

  • It reacts with strong acids and forms tin (IV) salts as a product.

  • Tin (IV) oxide acts as a reducing agent as in this compound tin is in its highest oxidation state.

 

Preparation of Tin (IV) Oxide

  • The stannic oxide is formed as a product when stannous oxide reacts with the oxygen. This reaction is an oxidation reaction. In this reaction, the oxidation state of tin changes from +2 to +4.

2SnO + O2 → 2SnO2

  • Tin (II) oxide gives a disproportionation reaction when heated in an inert atmosphere.

4SnO → Sn3O4 + Sn

  • In the above reaction, the formed Sn3O4 further reacts with the SnO and Sn metal to produce SnO2 and Sn as a final product.

Sn3O4 → SnO2 + Sn.

 

Uses of Tin Oxides

  • Tin oxides are used in making ceramic glasses.

  • Tin oxide is used in the formation of different dyes.

  • Tin oxides are used in polishing the surfaces.

  • It is used as a sensor for gas sensing.

  • Tin oxides are used as a precursor for various chemical reactions.

  • It is used as an illuminating agent.

 

Tin oxide nanoparticles have magnetic characteristics that are exploited in magnetic data storage and magnetic resonance imaging; Energy-saving coatings and anti-static coatings are used as catalysts; In solar cells, as electrodes and anti-reflection coatings; Gas sensors, optoelectronic devices, and resistors are all used in the production of gas sensors; 

 

Did You know?

  • Tin is a rare element found in the earth’s crust.

  • The main ore of tin is Cassiterite.


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FAQs on Tin Oxide

1. What are the Chemical Properties of the Tin (II) Oxide?

The chemical properties of tin (II) oxide are given below

  • Tin (II) oxide decomposes when heated.

  • Tin (II) oxide reacts with oxygen and emits a green flame. In this reaction, the stannic oxide is formed as a product.

  • Tin (II) oxide is amphoteric oxygen. It reacts with acid as well as with base.

  • It reacts with strong acids and forms tin (II) salts as a product.

  • It reacts with the base and forms stannites containing Sn(OH)3- as an anionic form.

2. What are the Physical Properties of Stannic Oxide?

The physical properties of stannic oxide are given below:

  • Tin (IV) oxide exists in solid form.

  • The color of tin (IV) oxide is colorless.

  • The melting point of tin (IV) oxide is 2966℉.

  • The density of this is 6.95 g/cm3.

3. What are the different uses of Tin Oxides?

Tin Oxides can be used in a lot of ways. To start with, these can be used to make ceramic glasses and these can be used to form different types of dyes. Tin oxides are also known to be used as sensors and are also used sometimes for illumination. Tin oxides can also be used in different chemical reactions. Another use of Tin oxides is that they can be used to polish different surfaces. 

4. What are the different ways of preparing Tin (IV) Oxide?

There are a few methods with the help of which, you can prepare the Tin (IV) Oxide. You can prepare it if you expose stannous oxide to oxygen which means that oxidation will take place in this reaction. So the oxidation state of Tin changes in this reaction. This reaction can be written as 2SnO + O2 → 2SnO2. On more reactions with the help of which, you can prepare Tin (IV) Oxide is the disproportionation reaction of Tin (II) oxide when it is heated. 

5.  What are the different types of oxides formed by Tin?

Two types of oxides are formed by Tin and these two oxides of Tin are tin monoxide and tin dioxide. In tin monoxide (stannous oxide), the oxidation state of Tin is +2 as in this inorganic compound, one atom of Tin reacts with one atom of oxygen and hence the chemical formula of tin monoxide is SnO. In tin dioxide (stannic oxide), the oxidation state of Tin is +4 as one atom of Tin forms bonds with two atoms of Oxygen and hence its chemical formula is SnO2

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