Tin is an element belonging to the p-block. It is present in the fourteenth group in the fifth period. In this article we will discuss the tin in detail and cover all important points about tin element like tin formula, The latin name of tin, Sn chemical name, tin scientific name, allotropes of tin, and chemical composition of tin alloys.
[Image will be Uploaded Soon]
Tin formula represents the symbol of the Tin. Its symbol is “Sn”. Latin name of tin is stannum. Sn chemical name is tin. Tin scientific name is the same as that of tin chemical name. Chemical composition of tin alloys include around 92% of tin, 7% antimony, and 1–2% copper, sometimes with bismuth or silver additions also present. Tin in nature occurs in two forms; organic tin and inorganic tin. Naturally tin found in earth crust. Organic tin forms a major contribution of an anthropogenically generated category of tin.
Organic tin is more toxic than the inorganic form of the tin. Toxicity of the organic form of the tin depends on the length of the alkyl group chain. Larger the alkyl group chain more will be the hydrophobic nature and more will be the toxic nature of the tin compound. Tin does not act as an essential element for the human body. The route of the tin excretion depends upon the type of the compound and the mode of the exposure. Generally insoluble inorganic compounds of the tin are non-toxic in nature. Toxicity caused by the organic form of the tin causes memory loss or mental disability.
Characteristics of Tin
Atomic mass of tin is 118.71u.
Atomic number of tin is 50.
Electronic configuration of tin is [Kr]5S24d105p2.
Its atomic radius is 217 pm.
Common oxidation state of tin is +4 and +2.
Its density is 7.287 g/cm3.
Its melting point is 505.08 K.
Its boiling point is 2875 K.
It exists in solid state at normal temperature.
It is silver-white in colour.
Comparison of Tin with Other Group 14th Elements
Carbon, silicon, germanium, Tin, and lead are the group fourteen elements. All these elements do not react with water. Carbon when steam is heated forms carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas. Tin chloride is a compound of tin. Tin chloride reacts with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and forms tin tetrachloride as a product. In this reaction tin dichloride gets oxidised from +2 oxidation state to +4 oxidation state. Tin dichloride reacts with potassium dichromate and forms tin tetrachloride and Cr+3 cation (green colour). Tin dichloride reacts with mercuric chloride forms white precipitate of mercurous chloride. When this mercurous chloride again reacts with the tin dichloride forms grey black precipitate of mercury. Tin dichloride reacts with the auric chloride and forms tin tetrachloride and aurous precipitate.
C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb + H2O→ No reaction.
C + steam → CO + H2
SnCl2 + KMnO4 → SnCl4 + Mn+2
SnCl2 + K2CrO7 → SnCl4 + Cr+3 (green colour)
SnCl2 + HgCl2 → Hg2Cl2 (white ppt) → Hg (grey black ppt)
SnCl2 + AuCl3 → SnCl4 + Au (precipitate)
Uses of Tin
It is used in coating of metals for prevention of corrosion.
It is used in making tin cans.
It is used in producing window glass.
Tin used in forming alloys.
Tin alloys are used in making superconducting wires.
Tin salts are sprayed on glass to make electrically conductive coatings.
Stannous fluoride is used in toothpastes.
Allotropes of Tin
Tin exists in three allotropic forms
White Tin (tetragonal).
White Tin (rhombic).
White tin exists in tetragonal crystal structure. Grey tin exists in a face centered cubic structure. Tin allotropes can be transformed from one crystal form to another at a specific temperature.
[Image will be Uploaded Soon]
Grey tin is also known as alpha tin. It can be transformed into white tin at 13.2 degrees celsius. White tin can be transformed into brittle tin (rhombic crystals) at 161 degrees celsius.
Harmful Effects of Tin
Tin causes breathing problems when inhaled.
Tin shows a property of an irritant. Therefore, it causes irritation to eyes and skin when it comes in contact.
Tin causes nausea, vomiting, coughing, and shortness of breath.
Tin can cause pain. Fatigue, and tremors.
High intake of inorganic form of tin causes anemia.
Intake of tin causes heart and kidney problems.
Did You Know?
Tin is a rare element found in the earth crust.
Tin forms 2 parts per million of the earth crust composition.
Tin when mixed with copper forms bronze (alloy).