There are around 118 elements in the modern periodic table. Many school students get confused with the nomenclature of the elements and the IUPAC names of the elements with atomic number 100 or above it. If you are also one of them, then you are in the right place. In this article, you will get to know about the nomenclature of the elements above 100 and their IUPAC names as well. Generally, the discoverer of the element is given the honor to name the element discovered. The name of the chemical element comes from the physical or chemical properties, its origin, or mythical characters. The recommended name of an element is then consented by the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry).
Most of the chemical elements have been assigned their symbols and names but still are not used universally. While studying nomenclature of elements with an atomic number greater than 100, it was found that some elements are given two symbols or names.
For instance, an element with atomic number=104 was claimed by both Soviet and American scientists. The Americans assigned the element with the name Rutherfordium (Rf) whereas the Soviet named it as Kurchatovium (Ku). Similarly, the element with Z=107 is assigned with the name Bohrium (Bh) and Neilsbohrium (Ns).
In 1978, IUPAC made a CNIC (Commission on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry) to eradicate the element naming and symbol issues. The IUPAC gives a clear rule of the systematic nomenclature of elements with an atomic number above 100.
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The Commission claimed that the elements must be named methodically by following the given below rules:
The names of the element should be short. Additionally, the element name should be related to its atomic number.
Whether an element of atomic number 100 or above or it is a metal or non-metal, its name should end in ‘ium’.
In the systematic nomenclature of elements with atomic number 100, the element symbols should consist of three letters.
The symbol should be derived from the atomic numbers of the element and be visually connected to the names.
The elements with the atomic numbers (Z) from 101 to 103 have trivial names. Additionally, they have consistent two-letter symbols accepted by IUPAC. The chemical element with the atomic number above 100 also referred to as superheavy elements.
The Commission mentions the use of three-letter structures for the chemical elements with Z=100 or above it. Because any scientifically derived set of two-letter symbols will tend to duplicate some of the elements of an atomic number less than 104.
The name of the element is directly derived from its atomic number by using the following numerical roots:
0 = nil (n)
1 = un (u)
2 = bi (b)
3 = tri (t)
4 = quad (q)
5 = pent (p)
6 = hex (h)
7 = sept (s)
8 = oct (o)
9 = enn (e)
The numerical roots are put together according to the digits, which make up the atomic number and end by “ium” to spell out the name.
The element symbol consists of the initial letters of the numerical roots, which make up the name.
In the name of the element, each root is pronounced separately such as the root ‘un’ should get pronounced with a long ‘u’.
For example, let us find the name of an element with atomic number 120:
Code for 1 is un
Code for 2 is bi
Code for 0 is nil
Hence the name of the element with atomic number 120 is un + bi + nil + ium (ending code), that is; unbinilium.
However, it is necessary to note that if the last digit code like bi ends with the letter ‘i’ then just add ‘um’. So, the ending, in that case, will be ‘um’ instead of ‘ium’.
1. What will be the nomenclature of the element with atomic number 114 and 116?
For the element with atomic number 114, according to IUPAC, the official name is flerovium that is defined with the symbol Fl. However, for the element with atomic number 116, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry approved livermorium name with symbol Lv. The name for element number 114 is exactly right that honors the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions. In this laboratory, superheavy elements are synthesized. For element number 116, the name honors Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California.
2. What will be the name of element number 119?
To date, only 118 elements have been recognized, and hence 119 is the hypothetical one named Ununennium with symbol Uue. It is a short name and symbol for this element, as referred by IUPAC. This name and symbol are valid until it receives permanent discovery and gets confirmed with its permanent name and symbol. Also, this element is known as eka-francium.