Magnetic Properties of Transition Elements

Introduction Of Transition Element And Their Magnetic Behavior

The whole arrangement of an inorganic chemical element is divided into metal and non-metal. 

Determining the metal and non-metal can be based on this fact which element has a positive and negative ion. The negative ion element comes in the series of metal and positive ion belongs to the metal category. To read out the physical and chemical property of an element, they are arranged in a periodic table in form and column format. The transition elements are those elements which do not comprise the full electronic configuration in the oxidation stage. Generally, it belongs to d-block elements.

Magnetic Properties of Transition Elements

The d-block element in the periodic table will show the magnetic property as their (n-1) d orbital owns the unpaired electrons. The higher the number of the unpaired electron in (n-1) element electronic configuration, they will tend to achieve the maximum magnetic behaviour. It is generally observed that transition element ion; will exhibit paramagnetic behaviour. It can be easily attracted by the magnetic field.

Trends of The Transition Element

  • As the number of unpaired electrons increases from 1 to 5, the magnetic moments increase. As a result, they will reach on the verge of the increased paramagnetic and decreased diamagnetic

  • Some transition elements have the paired electrons in (n-1) d orbital. It does not attract a magnetic field. These paired electrons are known as the diamagnetic.

  • Some metals have high paramagnetic i.e. it contains permanent paramagnetic. Hence, these transition elements are termed as ferromagnetism. The best example of ferromagnetism is Co and Ni.   

Magnetic Properties Of Transition Metal Complexes

Prediction of magnetic property is not easy unless there is a sure confirmation to how many unpaired electrons in the outermost cells. Electronic configuration and atom size play an important role. The magnetism of any compound has been achieved by electronic spin, the number of an unpaired electron to measure out how magnetized the compound is. 

The interesting fact of this compound is to yield the magnets. Metal complexes have unpaired electrons and thus, adopt the magnetic behaviour. The spin of each electron is represented by the quantum number Ms as +1/2 and -1/2. The spin has a flat affect as the electrons are coupled to each other. In case these electrons get single, it creates a weak magnetic field. The availability of a single electron will increase the paramagnetic effect.

Transition Elements Magnetic Properties

Achievement of the magnetic property tale place as the direction of the quantum number is in the opposite direction. Learn the characteristics of the transitions element.

  • These elements contain high melting and boiling points.

  • These elements have different valance in their outermost shell. Thereby, it has different oxidation stages.

  • It forms the coloured compound and chemical inorganic complex due to the existence of colour ions.

  • These elements have paramagnetic behaviour rather than diamagnetic behaviour.

The most common examples of the transition elements are copper, iron, and silver. This is the abundant transition element.  

Magnetic Properties Of The First Transition Series

The position of first transition series lies amid the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh groups. It consists of a coloured compound effect due to internal d-d transfers. The magnetic properties can conclude with theories such as Lenz’s, curie, and quantum mechanics.  

Explain The Magnetic Properties of Transition Elements

Without any clue and facts, it is hard to explain whether a particular element and compound are paramagnetic or not. So, there is sure need to make the electronic configuration and see the configuration leads to paired and unpaired electrons. In case it holds the unpaired electrons in (n-1)d shells, there it has the paramagnetic and ferromagnetism behaviour. Take the element of transition elements e.g. Zinc (Zn) to determine it is magnetic or not.

Steps for Determining it

  1. The electronic configuration of Zn atom is 4s2 3 d 10

  2. Sketch of the valence orbital

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  1. There is no unpaired electron.

  2. Due to the unavailability of unpaired electrons, it does not exhibit paramagnetic behaviour.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Are All Transition Elements Magnetic?

Group 3 of the periodic table consists of 38 elements. Out of 12 elements come in the transition elements. These elements have the almost same properties metals as. It has the tendencies of ductile and malleable. These elements are a good source of heat and electricity inflow. The most interesting fact is the transition elements of exhibiting the valence electrons. Due to interaction with other elements, it will combine the other elements. The electrons of those reacting elements make some changes in the electronic configuration. So, there might be some change in the context of magnetic and non-magnetic. Before making any claim about the magnetic behaviour, it is sure to draw the orbital structure. It will give a clear assumption for the paired and unpaired electronic configuration.

Claiming this fact is not true that all transition elements and their coordinate inorganic compounds exhibit the magnetic tendency. Whenever there is no unpaired electron, it loses the behaviour to be magnetic as it brings in the external magnetic field. That’s why all transition elements do not have a magnetic property. But the same transition elements change its nature as it has collaborated with some other positive and negative ions.

2. How Does Ferromagnetism Lie in A Particular Transition Element?

There should not be any confusion whether a particular transition element does not have the magnetic and non-magnetic property. Having ferromagnetism is meant that all concerned elements have a strong tendency for magnetic behaviour. It showcases the different tendencies even not in the external magnetic field. The real meaning of ferromagnetism is that they perform permanent magnetism. It is solely dedicated to showing the magnetic property regardless of environmental conditions. In the ferromagnetic stage, most of the atoms are grouped that have the same positive and negative ions. In the impression of the magnetic field, all domains are charged in the parallel direction.