Details and Facts About Cockroaches on Vedantu

Cockroaches (order Blattodea), generally known as roaches, are a group of around 4,600 insects that are among the earliest surviving winged insects, appearing today in much the same way as they did in 320 million-year-old fossils. Cockroach is a misspelling of the Spanish word cucaracha. A flattened oval body, long threadlike antennae, and a shiny black or brown leathery integument distinguish the cockroach. Unlike most other insects, the head is curved downward, and the mouthparts point backward rather than front or below. Female cockroaches are normally wingless or have vestigial wings, whilst males have two pairs of wings.


Where are Cockroaches Usually Found?

Cockroaches love warm, humid, gloomy environments and are most commonly found in tropical or mild climes. Only a few species have gotten out of hand and become pests. The bug causes more damage than it consumes and has an unpleasant odour. The roach's diet comprises both plant and animal materials, including food, paper, clothing, and books, as well as dead insects, particularly bedbugs. Insecticides are used to control roaches.


Life Cycle of a Cockroach

An egg is the beginning of a cockroach's life cycle. In warm, humid, and quiet areas of houses and workplaces, the pests lay cases of 10 to 50 eggs. These little, leathery capsules can be found in the following places:adhered to ceilings, walls, and furniture with the pests' sticky saliva under stoves, sinks, and appliances in bathrooms, storerooms, and pantries


Cockroaches hatch in one to two months, however the egg stage can last anywhere from 14 to 100 days depending on the species and temperature. In general, the faster bugs develop, the greater the temperature.


Because most females produce numerous egg cases during the course of their lives, infestations spread quickly. One German cockroach, for example, can lay over 300 eggs in a year.

Nymph

The nymphal stage of the cockroach life cycle comes next. Nymphs hatch and go through multiple moults, each one allowing them to grow a little more. Immature bugs emerge from their old shells with soft, white bodies that stiffen and turn brown, tan, or grey in colour. With their final moult, they will reach full adult size and pigmentation.


Adult

After their final moult, nymphs mature into adults and breed, resuming the cycle.


Structure of Cockroach

The head, thorax, and abdomen are the three parts of its body.Cockroaches have lengthy antennae that aid in the detection of odours and vibrations. The antennae are attached to the head, which also contains the brain, powerful mouthparts for scraping and chewing food, and compound eyes. Most species are nocturnal because they have weak vision and dislike light. The thorax follows the head. It has three pairs of legs (a total of six for cockroaches) and two pairs of wings. A plate called the pronotum is also located behind the head. It's significant since many species' distinguishing marks are found there. Although most adult cockroaches have wings, only a few species are able to fly. Cockroaches, on the other hand, may crawl at rates of up to 3 miles per hour. Because their legs contain short, spiky protrusions that adhere to surfaces, they can also traverse walls and ceilings. The final portion is the abdomen, which houses the reproductive organs. Two small protrusions called cerci protrude from the back of the abdomen. The abdominal nerve ganglia connect them to the roach's legs and function as back antennas. This enables their legs to begin moving as soon as vibrations are detected, frequently before their brain has had time to register the threat. That is also why catching a roach can be difficult.


Reproduction in Cockroach

Cockroaches are unisexual (dioecious) animals.


A pair of testes, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, utricular gland, and phallic gland make up the male reproductive system.


A pair of ovaries, an oviduct, a vaginal canal, a genital chamber, and colleterial glands make up the female reproductive system.During the summer, copulation occurs at night.Through the process of moulting, the ootheca nymph eventually matures into an adult.


Types of Cockroaches

  1. American Cockroach - Cockroaches in the United States are reddish brown in colour, with a yellowish figure 8 pattern on the back of their heads. This is the largest of the roaches that infest homes.This species can be found all throughout the United States and the world.

  2. Brown Banded Cockroach- Brown-banded cockroaches have a distinct banding pattern across their wings.This species initially arrived in the United States in 1903 and is now widespread across the country.

  3. German Cockroaches- German cockroaches have two dark stripes on their backs and are light brown to tan in colour. They have six legs and antennae and are oval in shape.This species is distributed throughout the United States.

  4. Oriental Cockroach- The Oriental Cockroach is a huge, lustrous black to dark reddish-brown cockroach.This species can be found in the United States' northern areas.During the summer, Oriental cockroaches can be found in sewers and will infiltrate structures through drains or door thresholds.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are Cockroaches Afraid of ?

Cockroaches hate the smell of citrus. So you can place some citrus peel in your kitchen to get rid of them. Cockroaches also hate the smell of eucalyptus and lavenders, if you grow lavender around your home it acts as the defence system from the cockroaches. Eucalyptus oil can be used as a spray to fight against the pest.

2. What Kills Cockroaches Instantly?

Boric acid, when boric acid is used correctly it is one of the most effective ways to kill cockroaches. Boric acid is odourless, it is less toxic to pets and it is not repellent to roaches, so they do not avoid it. If cockroaches crawl through the chemical repeatedly it will kill them. One of the popular methods to kill cockroaches is to mix equal amounts of wheat and boric acid with some amount of sugar, dough is formed. Place that in the different places of your kitchen and home.

3. Are Cockroaches Dangerous?

Yes, they are considered as dangerous as an allergen and also they trigger asthma. Cockroaches may carry many bacteria that may cause illness to the human if leftover on the food. According to cockroach information in the World Health Organization (WHO), they are unhygienic scavengers in human life.

4. Can Cockroaches Survive Cold?

No, cockroaches cannot survive in cold weather.  But all the cockroaches will not die, they will be having their own shelter and warmth for surviving the cold climatic condition. When the cold temperature crosses the temperature of -10 degree celsius, cockroaches that do not find shelter will start to die. This could be seen in places like Canada where the temperature drops below -10 degree. 

5. What forms the brood pouches in female cockroaches?

Both male and female cockroaches have ten segments in their abdomen. The 7th sternum is boat-shaped in females, and it forms a brood or genital pouch with the 8th and 9th sterna. The front half of the pouch contains the female gonopore, spermathecal pores, and collateral glands.

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