Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres

What are Political Parties?

Last updated date: 24th Feb 2024
Total views: 329.1k
Views today: 9.29k
hightlight icon
highlight icon
highlight icon
share icon
copy icon

Enumerate The Different Features And Needs Of Political Parties

The Indian Political Climate consists of several different political parties that contest all the elections in our country to select a particular government.

Because we have these political parties and the right to vote for the one we prefer, Democracy has been strong and steady in our country. So, it can be said without a single speck of doubt that having political parties means a proper and healthy situation for any nation.

Here we are going to learn about the functions of political parties and much more. Students will also get to learn the different features that make up a political party and what role it plays in democracy.

Introduction to Political Parties

A political party is made up of a specific group of people who come together to compete against each other to run a government that will be able to take care of the country's needs for the better.

Political parties are basically created in order to make sure that the country has a group of people to lead it. Not to mention that it provides the people of the country with a particular choice to make an effective and more evolved decision about the government that they have. 

Apart from that, the aspiration to win an election also drives other political parties to perform well and gather more votes than their competitors.

So, it can be said that the functions of political parties are certainly very important for the betterment of the country. The party that ends up getting most of the votes will be the one winning the elections, i.e., in India, the party in majority runs the government. At times, when a single party does not secure a significant number of seats in Parliament or in state legislative assembly they opt for coalition government.  

However, in today's political climate, political parties also run for the benefit of having a significant share of power while running the government.

It enables the voters to have a voice and promote the common interests and goals in the country.

The main role of political parties in India is to make sure that several political policies and agendas are being created and fixed for the welfare of the people and  betterment of the country. 

So, that is one of the main reasons why every single political party tries to ensure the people believe the claims of their policies and end up voting for them.

If seen from a broader view, with the help of a political party, the people will be able to send their messages to the government on the needs and requirements of the country. Every single political party must have some important components:

  • The Leader: This person has the primary responsibility for all the activities done by the party.

  • Active Members: The people who have the responsibility of selecting their leader.

  • Followers: People who can support, volunteer, donate, and vote for the party's running candidates.

Functions of Political Parties

There are several functions a political party has. A political party needs to perform these functions even to be considered a political party in the first place. 

We are going to list some of these functions and features of a political party so that you can understand them in a better way. These functions include:

  • Putting up specific candidates that will help in the elections.

  • In India, the party's top leaders are responsible for selecting the candidate for their parties. Whereas in the USA, members and the party's supporters can select their candidates.

  • A party includes different policies and programs. Voters have the choice to vote for the party whose policies and programs they support.

  • The parties who do not win this election and do not get a chance to form their government are called Opposition. These parties generally have different opinions and points of view regarding the functioning of the government.

  • Another critical function that a political party has is forming people's opinions in our country. The function here is forming various pressure groups, which in turn help the launching of various movements to solve people's problems and wants.

  • Political Parties also have access to different welfare schemes of the government.

  • One of the major features of political parties in India is to ensure that the country has proper schemes of welfare.

Need of Political Parties

Without different political parties, there would be no existence of Democracy in a country. This would not give the people of a country any power to form their government. 

Since there will be no responsibility for handling the country, this will lead to a single power ruling over the nation. This single power will then impose its ideologies on the entire public, consisting of people from different cultures, religions, beliefs, and economic statuses.


So, it can be said safely after reading the above text that having a political party is really important. They are the backbone of our country. They are the ones we elect to safeguard our Constitution and serve us. Socio-Economic upliftment happens through our chosen representatives.

FAQs on What are Political Parties?

1. What are the Main Functions of Political Parties?

Some of the main functions of political parties include:

  • Conducting elections to select a winning party that would be responsible for running the government in a democratic country

  • Coming up with political views and policies that need to be implemented in order to ensure the betterment of the country

  • Planning and thinking up of decision-making schemes in order to execute

  • Fixing all of the agendas and policies to ensure that the government runs smoothly and without any hassle

  • Providing schemes and welfare associations so that the people of the country have the best possible lives

In order to explain the function of political parties, these are some points which are going to be really important.

2. Define a Political Party?

In order to define a political party, it can be said that it is basically a party that consists of a certain group of people who need to win an election in order to get the power so that they can rule the government without any hassle. One of the most important things to keep in mind about political parties is that they should consist of people who have the same views and policies regarding the running of the government and the welfare of people. There is more than one political party that tends to compete against one another so that they can win the election.

3. What are some challenges that political parties face?

 Some of the challenges political parties have to face are:

  • A theme of the dynasty: From the very beginning of Indian politics this phenomenon has been there. A leader of the party sets such a mark on the public that it creates a lineage where a dynastic succession keeps occurring again and again. This makes it difficult for other ministers who do not have a family background in politics.

  • Abusing the power of money: Because the larger parties have bigger money power and also a bigger number of supporters, smaller and more regional parties have been participating less and less over the period of several elections.

  • No democracy inside the party: If only a few of the ministers have the power in their hands, it can lead up to conflicts inside the political party.

4. What are some of the largest political parties in India?

Some of the largest national parties in India are:

  • All India Trinamool Congress (AITC)

  • Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)

  • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)

  • Communist Party of India (CPI)

  • Communist Party of India – Marxist (CPI-M)

  • Indian National Congress (INC)

  • Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)

Sometimes different parties also form alliances together to create a new group that runs for the elections. The most well-known example of this is NDA. The National Democratic Alliance is the largest alliance in India and consists of parties like Bharatiya Janata Party, Janata Dal (United), All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Lok Janshakti Party, National People's Party, and many more.

5. How can we reform political parties?

Some measures through which we can reform political parties are:

  • We can make it mandatory for political parties to only give a certain number of tickets, and about one-third of them could be reserved for women candidates.

  • There should be a reform that helps women take part in the political system of our country and be on the teams of the major decision-making bodies in a political party.

  • We can challenge the money and muscle power and its abuse by the political parties through the affidavit requirement which is an order our Supreme Court has passed.

  • The third reform measure is a reform developed by the election commission which requires the political parties to file their income tax returns and hold regular elections.

  • Sometimes elected representatives to change their political parties for self-motives and interests or get cash rewards, to stop this, the anti-defection law was created.

6. How do laws in political reforms keep a political party in check?

A country’s reforms, whether they are political or democratic, can take the help of the nation’s law to keep the political parties in check:

  • A country’s law plays a vital role in developing the reforms. This is done so that the laws can be revised for the political parties so that no wrong political practices are taking place.

  • Any legal change the country’s law makes has to be checked so that we can ensure it is not benefiting any political party in an illegal way.

  • The political reforms should provide empowerment to the public so that they can carry out their own democratic reforms

  • All the democratic reforms should take place with political practices. These reforms should be developed to strengthen the democracy in a country.