Physical Science

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What is Physical Science?

Physical science is the step-by-step study of the inorganic world, differentiating it from the study of the organic world, which is the major of biological science. Physical science is one of the components of natural science that studies non-living systems/processes, which is in contrast to life science.

Physical science has various branches, where each is referred to as a "physical science", together called the "physical sciences". Here, we discuss the historical development besides attention to the scope, concerns, and methods of the first three above-mentioned areas.

Physics Meaning

Physics is a word that is derived from the Ancient Greek word ‘φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), and a Roman word called ‘physikḗ’ or epistḗmē. 

In the field of Literature, the Physics meaning is the 'knowledge of nature', from φύσις phýsis 'nature').

Physics is an innate branch of science that researches matter/particles, studies its movement and behaviour/attribute travelling via space and time, and the linked entities of energy and force.

Types of Physical Science

Physical science is a science that deals with lifeless natural objects. Four types of Physical Sciences are in turn divided into fields and further divided or subdivided into subfields about we will discuss in the following way:

  • Physics

  • Chemistry

  • Astronomy

  • Earth Sciences

What is Physics?

Physics is one of the most basic scientific disciplines, and its primary goal is to understand how our universe behaves. It is a science that deals with the physical properties and the phenomenon of something. 

Physics is one of the well-known branches of science that focuses more on the nature and various properties of matter and energy. The subject matter of physics involves mechanics, heat, sound, electricity, magnetism, radiation of light and other systems, and the structure of atoms and molecules.

In Physics, fields are the categories of describing its types. The following are the types of Physics:

Types of Physics Fields

  • Classical Physics

  • Modern Physics

Classical Physics

Classical Physics was introduced before the 19th Century. It is a science that is focused on the study of mechanics, light, heat and thermodynamics, motion of sound and waves, and electromagnetism.

It also deals with the following sciences:

  • Acoustics

  • Astronomy

  • Chemical Physics

  • Computational Physics

  • Electromagnetism

  • Fluid mechanics/Fluid dynamics

  • Meteorology/Weather Physics

  • Optics/Light Physics

  • Statistical mechanics

  • Thermodynamics

Modern Physics

Modern physics involves the atom and its components, relativity and the interaction of high-speed elements, cosmology and space exploration, and mesoscopic physics, a few pieces of the universe that fall in size between nanometers and micrometres. 

Some of the fields in modern physics are as follows:

  • Astrophysics

  • Atomic Physics

  • BioPhysics

  • Chaos

  • Cosmology

  • Cryophysics/Cryogenics or a low-temperature Physics

  • Crystallography

  • High energy Physics and a High-Speed Physics

  • Molecular Physics

  • Nanotechnology

  • Nuclear Physics

  • Particle Physics

  • Plasma Physics

  • Quantum Electrodynamics

  • Laser Physics

  • Quantum Optics

  • Quantum field theory

  • Quantum mechanics/Quantum Physics

  • Quantum gravity

  • Relativity

  • String theory or a superstring theory


Chemistry is the subject that works as an intermediate of Physics and Biology. It is a scientific principle that involves elements and compounds formed of ions, atoms, and molecules.

Chemistry also deals with the composition, structure, properties, behaviour, and the changes elements and compounds undergo during a reaction with other substances. 


Astronomy is the scientific study of matter and phenomena in the universe, especially in outer space, including the following parameters of celestial bodies:

  • Positions, 

  • Dimensions

  • Distribution

  • Motion

  • Composition

  • Energy, and 

  • Evolution of celestial objects

We also define astronomy as the system of knowledge or beliefs for celestial phenomena besides the various astronomies of ancient civilizations.

Earth Sciences

Earth sciences are the fields of study that are primarily focused on the solid Earth, its waters, and the air that covers it. 

Earth sciences embark on the hydrologic, geologic, and atmospheric sciences aspects with the wide aim of understanding Earth’s present features and its evolution. We acquire this knowledge to benefit humankind.

Sciences under Earth Sciences are as follows:

  • Geology

  • Geophysics and Geodesy

  • Geochemistry

  • Ecology

  • GeoscienceThermosphere

  • Glaciology

  • Atmospheric sciences

  • Physical Geography

Other categories it involves are:

  • Earth’s atmosphere

  • Earth’s magnetic field

  • Earth’s interior

Relativistic Physics

Relativistic Physics is one of the parts of Physical Sciences that are most popular among all the contexts in Physics because it deals with the theory of relativity discovered by Sr. Albert Einstein in the year 1905.

Do you know what Relativistic Physics or the theory of relativity says? If not, read the following description of the same:

Relativity is a theorem that was formulated by Albert Einstein. This theorem states that space and time are relative and all motions must be relative to a frame of reference.

This statement is a notion that states all the laws of physics are the same everywhere. This theory is simple but hard to understand because there is no absolute reference frame.

The below diagram shows the schematic representation of the theory of relativity:

[Image will be Uploaded Soon]

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Question 1: Describe the Term Earth’s Atmosphere.

Answer: The Earth’s atmosphere is enveloped by a layer of gases, primarily the air, held by Earth's gravity, surrounding the entire Earth (a planet) and forming or constituting its planetary atmosphere.

The Earth’s atmosphere protects life on Earth by generating enough pressure that allows liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, thereby absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention, i.e., greenhouse effect, and reducing temperature extremes between day and night, which is the diurnal temperature variation.

The atmosphere os Earth is divided into the following regions:

  • Troposphere

  • Stratosphere - A place where the Ozone layer is found.

  • Mesosphere

  • Thermosphere

  • Exosphere

Question 2: Describe Some of the Advances in Physics.

Answer: The advances in Physics mean innovative ideas that can explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new areas of research in academic disciplines viz: Mathematics and Philosophy. 

Advances in physics have enabled us to various advances in new technologies. 

Now, let’s talk about the following advances in Physics:

  • In the understanding of electromagnetism

  • Solid-state Physics

  • Nuclear physics has led directly to the development of new products that have drastically changed our modern-day society with the following new technologies:

  1. Television

  2. Computers

  3. Domestic appliances

  4. Nuclear weapons

  5. Advances in thermodynamics led to the advancement of industrialization,  and 

  6. Advances in mechanics intrigued the development of calculus.