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Physical Science

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Last updated date: 23rd May 2024
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What is Physical Science?

Physical science provides the study of different steps related to the inorganic world, distinguishing it from the organic world study, which is the major branch of biological science. Physical science is one of the important components of natural science which deals with the study of non-living processes/systems and it is in contrast to life science. 

Physical science has several branches, and each of it is called “physical science” and together it is known as “physical sciences”. Here we discuss the different types of physical science and their categorisation.


The Different Types of Physical Science

Physical science is essentially science which deals with the lifeless natural objects. There are four fundamental types of physical science that are further divided into various domains and then further classified into sub-domains. The main categories of physical science are: Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, and Earth Sciences. 


Physics: Physical science is one of the fundamental disciplines in science and the primary goal of physics is to understand the behaviour of the universe. This science deals with physical properties and the phenomenon of different objects. Physics is a popular science branch that is focused on nature and different properties of matter as well as energy. 


The study of physics mainly involves topics of heat, mechanics, sound, magnetism, electricity, radiation of light as well as other systems, plus the structure of atoms and molecules. Physics is further classified into classical physics and modern physics and each of the branches deals with different aspects of physics.


Chemistry: Chemistry works as the intermediate between physics and biology. It is the scientific principle which deals with elements and compounds, formation of atoms, molecules, and ions. Chemistry is also related to structure, composition, behavior, properties, and the changes that compounds and elements undergo during reaction with other substances. 



Astronomy: Astronomy is the scientific study related to matter and universal phenomena, especially associated with outer space. This includes the following mentioned parameters of the celestial bodies. 

Positions, distribution, dimensions, composition, motion, evolution of celestial objects, and energy. 


Astronomy can also be defined as a system of knowledge of the celestial phenomena apart from several astronomies of the ancient civilisations.  


Earth Sciences: The field of study in earth sciences is related to solid earth, the waters, and the air that surrounds the earth. Earth sciences cover the geologic, hydrologic, and the atmospheric sciences with the objective of understanding the present features of earth and its evolution. Some of the branches covered under earth sciences include Geophysics and Geodesy, Geology, Ecology, Geochemistry, Glaciology, Geoscience thermosphere, Physical geography, and Atmospheric sciences. It also involves earth’s magnetic field, earth’s atmosphere, and earth’s interior.

FAQs on Physical Science

1. Describe the Term Earth’s Atmosphere?

The Earth’s atmosphere is enveloped by a layer of gases, primarily the air, held by Earth's gravity, surrounding the entire Earth (a planet) and forming or constituting its planetary atmosphere.

The Earth’s atmosphere protects life on Earth by generating enough pressure that allows liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, thereby absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention, i.e., greenhouse effect, and reducing temperature extremes between day and night, which is the diurnal temperature variation.

The atmosphere os Earth is divided into the following regions:

  • Troposphere

  • Stratosphere - A place where the Ozone layer is found.

  • Mesosphere

  • Thermosphere

  • Exosphere

2.  Describe Some of the Advances in Physics?

The advances in Physics mean innovative ideas that can explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new areas of research in academic disciplines viz: Mathematics and Philosophy. 

Advances in physics have enabled us to various advances in new technologies. 

Now, let’s talk about the following advances in Physics:

  • In the understanding of electromagnetism

  • Solid-state Physics

  • Nuclear physics has led directly to the development of new products that have drastically changed our modern-day society with the following new technologies:

  1. Television

  2. Computers

  3. Domestic appliances

  4. Nuclear weapons

  5. Advances in thermodynamics led to the advancement of industrialization,  and 

  6. Advances in mechanics intrigued the development of calculus.

3. What is the meaning of the term earth’s atmosphere?

The atmosphere of earth is enveloped by the layer of gases, primarily air, held by the gravity of earth, surrounding the planet and forming its planetary atmosphere. The atmosphere of the earth protects life on earth through the generation of sufficient pressure, which enables the liquid water to exist on the surface of earth, thus absorbing the ultraviolet radiation of sun, warming the surface via heat retention, and reducing the extreme temperatures between day and night.

4. What are some of the advances that have happened in Physics?

The advancement in physics has translated to innovative ideas which explains fundamental mechanisms that are studied by other sciences and suggests new areas of research in the academic disciplines of maths and philosophy. Some of the advances in physics have been in understanding of electromagnetism, solid-state physics, and nuclear physics which has led to development of modern age products like computers, television, nuclear weapons, domestic appliances, calculus, and advancement in industrialisation. 

5. What is relativistic physics?

Relativistic physics is one of the components of physical sciences which is popular in physics since it is associated with the theory of relativity which was discovered by Albert Einstein in 1905. The theory of relativity says that time and space are relative and all the motions should be relative to the frame of reference. This is a simple theory however it tends to have a complex understanding since there is no absolute reference frame.

6. What are the different fields associated with modern Physics?

Modern physics covers the study of the atom and its components, cosmology and space exploration, relativity and interaction of high speed elements, and mesoscopic physics, plus few components of the universe which fall between nanometers and micrometres. Some of the fields associated with modern physics are atomic physics, astrophysics, Biophysics, cosmology, chaos, crystallography, nanotechnology, molecular physics, plasma physics, nuclear physics, relativity, quantum gravity, quantum field theory, and quantum optics amongst others.

7. How can I refer to the Vedantu notes on “Physical Science”?

Vedantu notes on “Physical science” can be downloaded for free either from the app or the website. These notes are available in the PDF format and you just need to click on the “Download PDF” link on different sections of Vedantu notes. Vedantu is a leading learning platform that provides a host of high quality learning resources and material to students of different domains as well as branches.

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