The Atoms are made up of protons and neutrons, collectively called nucleons, that are surrounded by electrons.
The atomic number of an element (Z) is the total number of protons in a nucleus. The atomic number determines what the element is.
Since non-ionizing radiation is just low-energy waves of the electromagnetic spectrum like radio waves or microwaves, detection is hard. But, if you can watch Television, listen to your radio, talk on your mobile phone, use Wi-Fi or other Bluetooth technologies, you are surely being exposed to NIR. To estimate the quantity of low-energy waves, you will need an EMF which is an electromagnetic field.
These can be estimated very accurately and one of the fundamental measuring instruments is the Geiger-Muller counter. This instrument to detect the radiation counts the number of radioactive particles which is entering a sensitive detection chamber and translates that signal into a needle movement on an analog dial or value is represented on a screen.
It is a nuclear process, where the energy is generated by smashing together light atoms. It is the contrary reaction of fission, where heavy isotopes are split apart. Fusion is the means by which the sun and other stars generate light and heat.
Let us understand a fusion reaction. We know that as deuterium and tritium fuse together, their component parts are recombined to form helium atom and a fast neutron. As the 2 heavy isotopes are reassembled into a helium atom, you have additional mass leftover which is then converted into the kinetic energy (KE) of the neutron, according to the very famous Einstein’s formula: