Movement of Earth and Weather

Introduction to the Movement of Earth and Weather

Weather, seasons, and climate are caused by the Earth's rotation around the Sun, as well as the tilt of the Earth's axis. Weather patterns are caused by the Sun, and the long-term average of weather patterns produces climatic zones all across the Earth. The average regional climates combine to form the Earth's climate. Changes in the Earth's revolution or axial tilt have an influence on weather patterns. 

Definition of Weather and Climate

In short, weather is the everyday atmospheric conditions. Weather comprises the day's overall atmospheric activity, which can range from hot and sunny to cold and gloomy, and from fog to rain, and then rain to snow.

Climate refers to average weather patterns and conditions across time (i.e, 30 years or more). Climate contains both ordinary and severe weather conditions. 

Two Major Movements of Earth 

  • Revolution: Like all other planets, earth revolves around the sun. The term "revolution" refers to the Earth's movement around the Sun. In an elliptical orbit (i.e, in an oval shape), the Earth revolves from west to east. As a result, the distance between the Earth and the Sun changes. One year is required for the Earth's revolution around the Sun.

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  • Rotation: The Earth, in addition to revolving around the Sun, also revolves around itself. Rotation refers to the spinning of the Earth around itself. The Earth spins clockwise from west to east. 

It completes one revolution in 24 hours, or one day. When we say that the Earth rotates or spins about itself, we are referring to its rotation on its axis. The axis is an imaginary line around which the world revolves.

The Axial Tilt of the Earth

The Earth's axis, which is an imaginary line, forms a 66 ½° angle with its orbital plane. The orbital plane is the horizontal plane on which the orbit is built. This tilt of the Earth's axis is responsible for seasonal changes on Earth and explains why the southern hemisphere (half of a sphere is referred to as a hemisphere) enjoys summer while the northern hemisphere experiences winter. 

This tilt also explains why the hours of day and night differ as one moves away from the equator (it is an imaginary line that divides the Earth into northern and southern hemispheres and is traced around the globe equally far from both poles).

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What is the Most Likely Cause of the Weather's Change and Variation?

As the Earth has two hemispheres. The type of weather at a given location is determined by the hemisphere's position in relation to the Sun. The northern hemisphere is exposed to more sunshine throughout the months of May, June, and July; hence there are summers in the northern hemisphere during this time of year, whilst there are winters in the southern hemisphere. The weather then changes throughout the months of November, December, and January.

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As a result, we may claim that the changing of seasons is caused by the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The weather of a location is determined by the amount of heat received from the Sun. The Earth's axis is not straight, but rather inclined. As a result, various parts of the globe are tilted toward the Sun at different periods. As a result, the seasons change.

Solved Questions

  1. How does the Earth’s rotation affect weather? 

Ans: Due to rotation of Earth, various parts of it pass in front of the Sun. The part that faces the Sun receives light, while the opposite part that faces away from the Sun does not receive sunlight and experiences night. This is one of the major effects of rotation of the Earth. Light falls on Earth from dawn to sunset, and we call it day. The light phase is referred to as the day, while the dark period is referred to as the night.

  1. Why do we have seasons?

Ans: As the Earth rotates on its axis, creating night and day, it also travels in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. The spin axis of the Earth is tilted with regard to its orbital plane. This is what causes the seasons to change. Summer is when the Earth's axis points towards the Sun in that hemisphere. Winter is to be expected when the Earth's axis is tilted away from the Sun.

  1. Is the Earth rotating in a clockwise direction?

Ans: Except for Venus and Uranus, all of the planets in our solar system rotate from west to east, which looks counterclockwise when viewed from above the North Pole. Hence, we can say that the earth rotates counterclockwise.

Fun Facts

People imagine Earth as a massive sphere. However, its shape is more like a pressed ball that bulges out at the equator exactly between the North and South Poles.


This article contains the concepts about the Earth’s various movements like rotation and revolution of the Earth. It also explains the reason behind the formation of day and night and different types of season on Earth. It also contains information about how the weather of the Earth got affected by the rotation of THE Earth.

Learning By Doing

Take a globe which is available in the market and put a table lamp facing one side of the globe. After switching on the lamp, observe whether the full part of the globe receives the light or not.

FAQs on Movement of Earth and Weather

1. What happens if the Earth doesn't rotate?

The Earth's rotational speed is at its fastest at the equator. If that motion came to stop, the momentum would force the objects eastward. Earthquakes and tsunamis would be initiated by moving rocks and seas. Landscapes would be cleaned by the still-moving atmosphere.

2. Why does the Earth spin on its axis?

The Earth rotates on its axis because of the attraction of between Sun and Earth and that pulls the Earth towards the Sun. Secondly, because of the Earth's revolution around the Sun, it tends to move away from the Sun in the direction of the tangent, causing a rotational force to act on the Earth and thus causing it to rotate.

3. Who was the first person to realise that the Earth revolved around the Sun?

Nicolaus Copernicus published his theory of the Universe in 1543, in which the Earth and the other planets revolved around the Sun. His theory took more than a century to achieve popular recognition.