Hydroelectric Power

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There are several ways of producing electricity, we use different types of power plants depending upon the availability of the source. For example, we have thermal power plants, we have tidal power plants, etc. One of the most widely utilized power plants is the hydroelectric power plants.

Hydroelectric power plants are designed for producing electricity with the help of the flow of water also known as hydro energy. We know that 75% of the land is covered with water. Also, water is the primary energy source available.

Hydro Power Plant

While learning about hydraulic machines, one of the most important hydraulic machines to be studied is the Hydroelectric power plant which generates hydroelectric energy or hydropower energy.  

Components of Hydroelectric Power Plant

The hydroelectric power plant utilizes the kinetic energy developed by gravitational potential energy due to falling water. The main part of the hydroelectric power plant is a water turbine generator.

The important parts of the hydroelectric power plant are:

  1. The reservoir: It is the part where the water will be stored.

  2. The turbine: The equipment used to generate kinetic energy as soon as the waterfall from a height.

  3. Generator: It will generate electricity by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.

  4. Powerhouse: It will store all the electricity generated and then it will distribute through transmission lines or the power lines.

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Working of Hydroelectric Power Plant

  • The potential energy stored in the water of the reservoir stored at a higher level will release as kinetic energy as it falls to the lower level. 

  • Water from the reservoir will be made to fall on the turbine in such a way that the force due to the waterfall will result in rotating the turbine. 

  • The turbine is further connected to the generator, then the generator will generate electricity. The electricity produced is also known as the hydroelectric current or hydropower.

This is how hydroelectric power plants work and hence produce electricity which is further transmitted through transmission lines as per the need.

Did you know?

  • The Three Gorges Dam is the biggest hydroelectric power plant available in the entire world.

  • The Three Gorges Dam, a hydroelectric project located in China. It has the capacity of generating 22,500MW (Megawatt) power. 

  • Tehri hydroelectric complex is the largest hydroelectric power plant in India, it consists of the potential of generating 2400MW power or hydroelectricity. 

  • The Koyna hydroelectric project is the second-largest power station with a capacity of generating 1900Mw hydropower. Koyna has 4 hydroelectric dams with a great hydroelectric generator.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1: What are the Pros and Cons of Hydroelectric Power?

Ans: There are several advantages as well as disadvantages of the hydroelectric power plants:


  • It utilizes a renewable source of energy.

  • Can be paired with other renewable energy sources.

  • Can meet the need for electricity.


  • Lack of reservoirs.

  • Highly expensive upfront.

2: Is Hydroelectric Energy Good for the Environment?

Ans: No. The hydroelectric power plant is not good for the environment. pollutes the reservoirs causing a threat to the environment.