A Volcano is a rupture in the Earth's crust that emits out hot lava or magma, volcanic ash, and various gases. There is a magma chamber below the volcano which produces gases.
The Earth is made up of 17 major tectonic plates that float over a hot and soft layer of the mantle. The volcanoes of Earth are found on the boundaries of these tectonic plates. They are found where the plates are either diverging or converging. Most of the volcanoes are found underwater.
This theory of volcanism comes under the "plate hypothesis." The volcanoes which are located away from the tectonic plate boundaries are called mantle plumes.
These volcanic hotspots, like that of Hawaii, are said to be formed from the upwelling of magma from the core, mantle boundary, which is 3000 km below Earth's surface. Volcanoes are usually not created in the boundaries where two tectonic plates slide with each other.
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(Sabancaya volcano erupting, Peru in 2017)
Volcanoes are of various shapes and sizes. They are formed of different types of magma, and their behavior is also different depending upon their location.
Stratovolcanoes are the most usual kind and are also easily recognizable. These are steep-sloped and cone-shaped volcanoes. Stratovolcanoes are called composite volcanoes.
Shield volcanoes are generally a little shorter in height than stratovolcanoes, but still, they have sufficient height.
For example, Olympus Mons is a type of shield volcano on planet Mars. This volcano is the largest of our solar system. This volcano is around 25 kilometers tall, with diameters around 624 meters.
Cinder cones are small volcanoes and are made up of loose volcanic material. These volcanoes have a short life span and usually grow by the sides of large volcanoes.
These volcanoes are typically formed by an explosive eruption or lava fountain that comes out from a single vent.
These are the largest and most explosive volcanoes found on Earth. Supervolcanoes are not scientifically defined.
These enormous volcanoes have the potential to produce giant calderas, the calderas are the volcanic craters which are formed when a volcano collapses within itself, and the magma chamber below the volcano becomes empty by the eruption.
A volcanic eruption is among the huge and potent natural forces of Earth.
A miniature model of an erupting volcano is a great way to start learning about the basic geological features of a volcano.
A simple volcano model can be made from household items.
Read in the following written instructions if you want to know more about volcanoes.
● Two A3 sheets of card
● Paint and paintbrushes
● 200 ml plastic bottle
● Small bow
● 1 tbsp red food coloring
● ½ cup vinegar
● 2 tbsp water
● 1 tbsp bicarbonate of soda (baking soda)
● 1 tbsp washing up liquid
1. Take a plain sheet of card, and place a bottle upside down rightly in the counter of the sheet, and draw a small circle around the neck of the bottle.
2. Cut the circle that you have drawn by the help of scissors.
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3. Overlap two sides of the card sheet to make it into the shape of a cone. Tape this into place, and make a hole where you can cut out the circle.
Cut around the base of the cone to make it flat so its base can fit perfectly, but make sure that the cone should be taller than your bottle.
4. Place the cone above the bottle. Fix the top of the cone with the neck of the bottle with the help of tape to hold it in place. Fix the base of the cone with another sheet of card with the help of a tape.
5. Decorate the cone by applying paint over it to make it look like a volcano. Allow your model to dry fully.
Cut the card from the base of the cone to make it flat.
6. Mix bicarbonate of soda and washing liquid in a bowl. Add water to it and mix it thoroughly. When your mixture is ready, pour it into your volcano.
7. Mix vinegar and food coloring together in a bowl.
8. When you're ready to do the experiment, pour vinegar into the bottle along with the bicarbonate. Wait for your volcano to erupt, then watch how the lava flows out of your volcano.
9. Experiment with different amounts of vinegar & bicarbonate to the change in the eruption of the volcano.
Take care while handling the ingredients of eruption, make sure to stand back while watching the eruption so that you don't get hurt due to the eruption and also avoid it getting into your eyes. Make sure you conduct your experiment in a well-ventilated area.
This is how to make a working model of volcano. Make your model upon a wipe-clean surface so that you may not face any problem while cleaning it.
● The cool red lava that comes out of the volcano is the result of the chemical reaction between baking soda and vinegar.
● CO2 is produced in this reaction and is also emitted out of real volcanoes.
● When the carbon dioxide gas is produced in your model, pressure starts building inside the plastic bottle, and when it reacts with the detergent, the gas bubbles come out from the mouth of the volcano.
1. What Are the Examples of Volcanoes?
Mid-oceanic ridges like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have a number of volcanoes that are caused by divergent tectonic plates, whereas the volcanoes of the Pacific Ring of Fire are caused by convergent tectonic plates.
Volcanoes can also be formed at sites where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust. e.g., in the East African Rift, Wells Gray-Clearwater, and Rio Grande Rift in North America, these types of volcanoes are found.
2. What Causes Volcanoes?
Volcanoes happen when magma comes out from the surface of Earth, this also causes gas bubbles to emit out from it. This gas builds up pressure inside the mountain, and the volcano erupts. When the magma comes out of the volcanoes, it is called lava.
3. How Many Volcanoes Are Active Today?
There are about 1,500 potentially active volcanoes on Earth. About 500 volcanoes out of 1,500 volcanoes had volcanic eruptions in recent times.
4. What Are the 5 Most Active Volcanoes?
These are the world's most five active volcanoes.
Santa Maria - Guatemala. Source: NASA Earth Observatory
Galeras - Colombia
Sakurajima - Japan
Mount Merapi - Indonesia
Taal Volcano - Philippines