Electrostatic Precipitator

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An electrostatic precipitator is also known in short form as ESP is a filtration device that removes fine particles that are like smoke or the dust. In contrast to all that we will discuss in this article which is wet scrubbers which apply energy directly to the flowing medium of fluid an ESP that applies 

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In 1824 the first use which is of corona discharge that too to remove particles which are from an aerosol was by Hohlfeld. However we can say that it was not commercialized until almost a century later.


Note: Cottrell which is the first and is applied on the device to the collection of sulphuric acid mist and oxides of lead that fumes emitted from various acid-making and activities which are smelting as well.


Working Principle of Electrostatic Precipitator

At the time which is of Cottrell's invention the basis which is theoretical for operation was not understood. The theory which is operational was developed later in the country Germany with the work of Walter Deutsch. And also the formation of the Lurgi company which he assigned the patents. The Goddard's rocketry experiments by Lawrence's cyclotron and the production methods for vitamins A and B1 which was among many others.

The  Lurgi Apparatebau-Gesellschaft which is in Germany and Japanese Cottrell Corp. the country Japan as well as was a clearinghouse for any process which was for the improvements. However, we can say that the antitrust concerts forced Research Corporation in 1946 to eliminate territory restrictions.


ESP Working Principle

With the plates which typically spaced about apart we can say that 1 cm to 18 cm depends on the application. The stream which is of air that flows horizontally through the spaces is in between the wires and then passes through the stacks of plates.

A voltage which is negative of several thousand volts is applied between plates and wire. If the voltage applied is high enough an electric discharge of corona ionizes the air around the electrodes which then ionizes the particles in the stream of air.

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The particles which are ionized due to the force which is electrostatic are diverted towards the plates and grounded. The build of the particles up on the collection plates and are removed from the stream of air.

What is a Precipitator?

The performance of a precipitator is very sensitive to two particulate properties 1 the  resistivity of the electrical and 2 is the particle size distribution. These properties which can be economically be measured and accurately in the laboratory that are  using standard tests. 

The resistivity that can be determined as a function of temperature which is in accordance with IEEE 548 standard. This test is conducted in an air environment which is containing a specified moisture concentration. The test is run as a function which is of descendants and ascending temperature or both. The Data which is acquired by using an average layer of ash 


The field is of 4 kV/cm. Since the relativity is low which is applied by the voltage used and no vapour that is of sulfuric acid that is present in the environment of the test the values which are obtained by maximum indicate ash resistivity.


In an ESP where there is a charging particle and discharging are known as the key functions of the resistivity and is a very important factor that significantly affects collection efficiency. In this article we already know that resistivity is an important phenomenon in the inter-electrode. The  region where most of the particles which have talked about charging takes place has a particularly very important effect on the layer of dust at the electrode collection where discharging. The particles that exhibit very high resistivity and are difficult to charge. But once these all things are charged they do not readily give up their acquired charge on arrival at the electrode collection. 

On the other hand, we can talk about the particles in the article with very low resistivity that are easily charged and released readily to their charge to the grounded plate collection. Both the extremes impede resistivity the functioning which is efficient for ESPs. the work of ESPs best under normal conditions which is of resistivity.


Hopefully, we have covered all the important points in this article. The form of air or other than that the gases in smokestacks and flues are other. The functions which we have discussed are of precipitator that too by applying the required energy that is only to the particulate matter is being collected without significantly impeding the flow of the gasses. 

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. Explain how an Electrostatic Works of a Precipitator?

Ans: Which take the form of wires of metal and the bars or plates which are inside a pipe or smokestack.  As the particles which are of dirt move past it they pick up a negative charge.

Q2. Explain What is an Electrostatic Precipitator used for?

Ans: originally designed recovery which is of valuable process of industrial materials electrostatic precipitators which are used for pollution of air control. particularly for particles removed from gases which are waste at industrial facilities and stations of power-generating.

Q3. Explain what Industries use Electrostatic Precipitators?

Ans: An precipitator which is an electrostatic is an air filtration device which is used primarily in the manufacturing of metal and industries which are mining industries. The device is said to deploy an induced charge that is too electrostatic to remove dust and smog along with the particulate matter which is from exhaust air or gas streams.

Q4. Explain how Electrostatic Precipitators reduce Air Pollution?

Ans: The precipitators which are electrostatic works by removing particles and smoke from a stream of gas using a charge of electrostatic. The water introduces a spray that can reduce the resistance of electricity of the dust particles that are allowing them to accept the charge more easily.