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Electrical Conductors

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Last updated date: 14th Jul 2024
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Each material which we have seen till date is different and has its properties and characteristics. Some of the materials which have electrically charged particles generally known as electrons. These electrons that are electric charge that is applied to the material at point which is specific point. The electrons which really start to move and allow electricity to pass through it. 

The materials which have good mobility that are of electrons are called conductors and materials that are with less mobility of electrons that are referred to as insulators. In this article let us know the best electrical conductors and its properties as well.

Classification of Electrical Conductivity

The ability of the material to pass electricity through it is called conductivity. Depending on the conductivity of the materials are classified as conductors or the insulators and superconductors.

If we have to define the meaning that is of electrical conductors that too in the simplest way that is they are materials that allow electricity that too to flow through them easily. If we compare the other two types of material and the first one that allows the better flow of electricity through it then that material is already said to be a very good conductor of electricity.

Examples of Electrical Conductors

Some of the examples that are of conductors of electricity are:

  • The Copper

  • The Aluminium

  • The Silver

  • The Gold

  • The Graphite

  • The Platinum

  • The Water

  • The People

A conductor which is said to be the electrical conductor allows the electric charges to easily flow through them. The property which is of conductors basically to “conduct” the electricity is known as the conductivity. Such materials offer less opposition or we can say resistance to the flow of charges. The Conducting materials that generally allow easy charge transfer because of the free movement of electrons through them.

Good Electric Conductor

The substance that is of the atom is an electrical conductor that must have no energy gap that is between its band of valence and band of conduction. The electron which is said to be the outer electrons in the valence band are loosely attached to the atom. When an electron gets excited due to force which is the electromotive force or thermal effect, it moves from its valence band to conduction band.

The band which is of Conduction is the band where this electron gets its freedom to move anywhere in the conductor. The conductor is formed by two atoms. Thus, as a whole we can consider that the band which is the conduction is in abundance of electrons. In other words we can say that the bonds which are metallic are present in the conductors. These metallic bonds which are basically based on the structure that is of positive metal ions. These structures are surrounded by clouds of electrons.

Properties of Electrical Conductor Metal

The main properties that we should be with a conductor are listed as follows:

  1. A conductor that always allows the movement of free ions and electrons.

  2. The field which is said to be the electric field that is inside a conductor must be zero to permit the ions or the electrons to move through the conductor.

  3. The Charge density which is inside a conductor that is zero and that is the negative and positive charges that cancel inside a conductor.

  4. As we already know that there is no charge inside the conductor that only free charges can exist that too only on the surface of a conductor.

  5. The field which is said to be the electric field is perpendicular to the surface of that conductor.

The Solid Conductor

  1. The Metallic Conductor: the Silver, and the Copper, and the Aluminum, Gold etc.

  2. The Non Metallic Conductor: the Graphite

  3. The Alloy Conductor: the Brass, Bronze etc.

The Liquid Conductor

  1. The Metallic Conductor: the Mercury

  2. The Non Metallic Conductor: the Saline Water and the Acid Solution etc.

A current which is carried as the conductor at any instance is with zero charge. It is so because at any instance the number of electrons  or we can say that at drift velocity it is equal to the number of protons that are in this conductor. So the net charge which is zero.

We can  Suppose that a conductor is connected with or across a battery, that is the positive end and the negative end are connected with a conductor. Now we will notice that the flow of the electrons that are through the conductor are from negative end to positive end of the battery. This flow which we have discussed is electrons is possible until this battery has EMF that has the producing capability through chemical reaction inside.

FAQs on Electrical Conductors

Q1. Explain is Gold a Conductor.

Ans: Gold is said as it is the highly conductive substance which is why we can say that it has been used in electrical wiring since the days of the telegraph.  Another very common misconception that is said to be pure Gold is the best conductor of electricity. while the metal Gold does have a relative which is high conductive rating, however, it is actually less conductive than Copper.

Q2. Explain that Is it a Good Conductor of Electricity.

Ans: the metal Copper is considered to be a conductor because it conducts the electron and the flow which is the current of electrons that are fairly easily. Most metals that are considered to be good conductors have too of electrical current.  Other materials that are sometimes said to be used as conductors are gold, silver and aluminum.

Q3. Explain that Copper is a Good Conductor of Electricity.

Ans: Electrical conductivity is said to be a measure of how well a material is transported in charge which is electric charge. This is said to be an essential property which is in electrical wiring systems. The Copper that has the highest electrical conductivity rating of all metals which are the non-precious the electrical resistivity of copper = 16.78 nΩ•m at 20 °C.

Q4. Explain what is the Strongest Conductor.

Ans: Metal Silver. The metal silver is said to be the strongest conductor out of all known materials. However we can say that because silver is relatively costly and a metal which is sought-after so it is not frequently used for its conductive properties.