The bodies which we have taken for this purpose which is in the application of electric field results that are present in the generation of electric current. This is due to the movement of the electrons and is known as an Electrical Conductor. In such similar bodies which we took as observers the electrons are free to move around and at times inside the body and their motion which is random can be influenced by an field which is electric.
Electric Conductors Explained
Most of the conductors which are electrical in nature are metals mainly because metals electrons which possess in the orbit which is outermost where they are most loosely held and can move around in a very easy manner. The wires which are supplying electricity to our houses are supplying energetic electrons which are fresh electrons to your house for you to use. We have to learn how to use it and we have become completely dependent on things like electricity.
Case 1:The Condition Which are Normal Without Battery
We know that the free electrons that are the valence electrons keep moving randomly.
Next we can see that these electrons will have some of the velocity with which they keep on moving randomly inside the conductor. This is the velocity which is known as thermal velocity.
As this entire motion which is said to be random therefore the average thermal velocity that is of electrons is 0.
Case 2: When We Apply an External Electric Field to it
We can easily notice here that when the battery is applied the electrons will start moving that too towards the positive end of the conductor.
Then we will notice next that the positively charged ions get attracted towards negative ions but we can also see here that as these positively charged ions are heavy they don’t move.
Next as we have seen that the electrons move towards the positive end they get accelerated.
Next of all as electrons are moving in direction which is one they will collide with the positively charged ions in the path.
The velocity which is extra whatever the electron gained by accelerating will be lost as a part by collision.
The result which is said to be as the net result is that the electron acquires a very small amount which is of velocity. The average of all that we have discussed is this small velocity which they have acquired is known as Drift velocity.
Flow of Electrons in a Conductor
In subjects like physics and the topic like electrical engineering we have seen a conductor which is an object or we can say the type of material that allows the flow of charge that is electrical current in one or more directions. Materials which are made of metal that are common in the electrical conductors. The current or we can say that the
Electrical current is generated by the flow which is of negatively charged electrons and the positively charged holes and then the negative or the positive ions in some cases.
In order to remember things regarding current flow it is not necessary for one charged particle which is ultimately to travel from the machine producing the current to consuming it. Therefore the powering helps the machine.
Essentially, we can say that what is occurring is a chain which is long of momentum transfer in between charges of mobile carriers. The model of Drude of conduction describes this process even more rigorously. This momentum which we have discussed about the transfer of model which makes metal an ideal choice for a conductor of metals. Characteristically we can say that they possess a delocalization which is related to a sea of electrons that gives the electrons that are enough mobility to collide and thus affect a momentum transfer.
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As discussed in the article above the electrons that are the mover which is the primary mover present in metals. However the devices which are said to be the other devices such as the cationic electrolyte s which is of a battery or the photons which are mobile of the proton conductor of a fuel cell rely on charge which is positive carriers.