Diamagnetic Elements

Diamagnetic Basics: Origin Of Magnetic

Magnetism is the resultant product of electron’s spin motion and their interaction with one another. Different objects respond differently to different objects. So, we can describe the various magnetic materials by describing their responsiveness to the magnetism. When you study the behaviour of objects, you will find that most of the objects are like magnets and in other words, we can say that all the matters are magnetic. It may happen that their magnetism is different. Some matters are more magnetic, and some are less magnetic. Well, you will be surprised by what makes the difference between the magnetism of different matters. We have already discussed that the motion and interaction of electrons are responsible for the magnetism property of any object. The level of electron interaction makes such variation in magnetism. Some materials have no collective interaction while other materials may have intense atomic electron moment and interaction.


Magnetic Materials: Classification

How objects respond to the external magnetic energy defines the magnetic property of objects. Here we will discuss the magnetism of solid substances, and classification can be done in three categories.

  • Diamagnetic: Diamagnetic Meaning

Generally, Magnetic field of external substance attracts the materials, but some materials are prone to the magnetic attraction. Such materials or substances are called diamagnetic. Examples of diamagnetic are water, mercury, gold, copper, and bismuth.

  • Paramagnetic

 Substances that are weakly attracted to the magnetic materials are paramagnetic. Examples of paramagnetic materials are Lithium, Molybdenum, Magnesium.

  • Ferromagnetic

Materials that are strongly attracted to magnetic materials. Examples of ferromagnetic are Nickel, Iron, and Cobalt. 

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Diamagnetic (Magnetic Field)

Diamagnetic materials, for the most part, repulse from a magnet. In fact, these solids make an instigated attractive field toward a path inverse to a remotely applied attractive power and are repulsed by the applied attractive field. This wonder is the polar opposite conduct shown by paramagnetic materials. 

The orbital movement of electrons present on the molecules of diamagnetic solids produces attractive fields as it makes little nuclear current circles. At the point when attractive outside power is applied to a material, these current circles will, in general, adjust to restrict the applied field. 

In diamagnetic materials, there is no perpetual net attractive second per iota as all the electrons are combined. Because of the impact of an attractive outside power, diamagnetic properties emerge from the realignment of the electron ways. Most components in the occasional table like copper, silver, and gold, are diamagnetic in nature. Sebald Justinus Brugmans found diamagnets in the year 1778. Michael Faraday further showed that diamagnetism or attraction is a property of an issue, and each material or durable response as needs be. 


Attractive Susceptibilities of Diamagnetic Materials  at 20°C 

Km is the relative penetrability which is only an amount that quantifies the proportion of the in-charge to the applied attractive field. 

Material

χm= Km-1 (x 10-5)

Carbon (graphite)

-1.6

Ammonia

-.26

Silver

-2.6

Bismuth

-16.6

Carbon (diamond)

-2.1

Mercury

-2.9

Lead

-1.8

Water

-0.91

Copper

-1.0

Sodium chloride

-1.4


The gases N2 and H2 are weakly diamagnetic with susceptibilities -0.0005 x 10-5 for N2 and -0.00021 x 10-5 for H2. The gases N2 and H2 are weakly diamagnetic with susceptibilities -0.0005 x 10-5 for N2 and -0.00021 x 10-5 for H2.


What is Magnetic Susceptibility?

Susceptibility is a measure to extend to which material gets magnetic energy under the influence of an external magnetic object or field. In other words, we can use the term “magnetizability” for the susceptibility of magnetic material.

Polarization or magnetism is created when an object interacts with the magnetic field. Polarization may either augment or oppose the external field. Object’s active field is reduced because of the opposition of the applied magnetic field by the polarization. In this situation, the magnetic lines are dispersed because of polarization, and this effect is called diamagnetic.


Magnetic Susceptibility Of Diamagnetic Substance

Attractive materials might be named diamagnetic, paramagnetic, or ferromagnetic based on their susceptibilities. Diamagnetic materials, for example, bismuth, when put in an attractive outer field, mostly remove the outside field from inside themselves and, whenever molded like a bar, line up at right edges to a nonuniform attractive field. Diamagnetic materials are portrayed by consistent, little unfavorable susceptibilities, just marginally influenced by changes in temperature.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is The Magnetic Susceptibility Of Diamagnetic Substances

Susceptibility Of Diamagnetic Material

Magnetic susceptibility, is expressed by the Greek character Chi (χ), is interpreted as the magnitude of the inner polarization (J) distributed by the strength of the outside field (B):

χ = J / Bo

Susceptibility refers to the dimensionless number because it is the ratio of two different magnetic fields. 

Diamagnetic substances have negative susceptibilities (χ < 0); superparamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic substances have positive susceptibilities (χ > 0)

2. Define The Important Properties Of Diamagnetic.

Materials that have atoms with paired electrons are diamagnetic. Some of the essential properties of diamagnetic materials are as follows

All the atoms in substances have paired electrons, and hence the magnetic movement is zero. So, diamagnetic materials have no dipoles in atoms.

They respond repletion in the presence of a magnetic field.

The intensity of magnetization is negative, small, and proportional to the external magnetic field.

The susceptibility of diamagnetic is negative and small.

When diamagnetic materials come in contact with the uniform magnetic field, it will be perpendicular to the magnetic field direction.