In your childhood, you might have played with magnets but at that time you didn't know how those magnets attracted pieces of iron. At Vedantu, you will understand the whole mechanism behind the phenomena of magnetism. Here in this article, we are going to study the diamagnetic materials, their properties and their applications.
Diamagnetism is a magnetic feature of matter in which electrons within a substance spin faster in response to an external magnetic field, generating magnetic forces that resist or repel the outside magnetic field. When put in a magnetic field, diamagnetic substances are normally repelled by the magnetic field or are freely magnetized in the opposite direction of the magnetic field.
Diamagnetism is a magnetic phenomenon in which the electrons inside a material reject the external magnetic field. Anton Brugmans discovered diamagnetism in 1778 as Bismuth was repelled by magnetic fields that he discovered. Faraday coined the term 'diamagnetic', which he eventually altered to diamagnetism. When a magnet or a magnetic field is introduced close to a diamagnetic substance, it repels it weakly. The magnetic intensity of these materials is very low or negative, and they are unaffected by temperature. Examples of diamagnetism include the bending of the water surface and the levitation of a frog.
Diamagnetic Materials' Properties
In Diamagnetic materials, there are no atomic dipoles since the resulting magnetic moment of each atom is zero, that is because of the paired electrons and these are repelled by a magnet. Because of this repulsion, the substances in it have a propensity to shift from a strong to a weak section of the external magnetic field in a non-uniform field.
Magnetization 'I', which is proportional to the field, has a very low intensity and is also negative. These have a low and negative magnetic susceptibility and the relative permeability is just under unity. Diamagnetic materials are temperature-insensitive as they don't obey Curie's law. Because the field is stronger at the poles, a rod of Diamagnetic material hangs in a homogenous magnetic field with its length perpendicular to the field direction. The magnetic dipole moment is tiny and polarised in the opposite direction as the magnetic field 'H'. If a Diamagnetic liquid is placed in a watch glass between two pole pieces that are very near to one another, liquid collects on the sides and depression appears in the center, where the field is greatest. When a liquid is put on a watch glass placed over two pole pieces that are sufficiently separated apart, the liquid accumulates in the middle, where the field is weakest. The source of diamagnetism is an induced dipole moment created by a shift in the orbital motion of electrons in atoms caused by the applied field.
Diamagnetism Materials or Diamagnetism Applications
Because diamagnetism is the outflow of magnetic fields within a material, big and powerful Diamagnetic materials can be levitated, or levitate magnets. In superconductors, the Diamagnetic response results in zero internal magnetic fields. In the presence of a strong permanent magnet, the Meissner effect illustrates how some materials may be readily levitated. High-temperature superconductors, on the other hand, are made from unique materials that require costly processing and cryogenic fluids to reach the superconducting state. Perfect diamagnets are superconductors that have a blue color and expel all of their external magnetic fields.