# Determination of Focal Length of Concave Mirror and Convex Lens

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### Concave Mirror

A concave mirror which is also known as a converging mirror consists of a reflecting surface that has been recessed inward (away from the incident light). The concave mirror can reflect the light inward to one focal point. They are used for focusing light. In a concave mirror, the image type depends on the distance between the object and the mirror.

### Convex Lens

A convex lens is a type of lens that is thicker at the center and thinner at the edges. An optical lens is built using two spherical surfaces which if bent outwards will be considered as a convex lens. These types of lenses are used for converging a beam of light and focusing it to a point at the other side.

### How to Find the Focal Length of a Concave Mirror Class 12?

The following are the ways by which students can find the focal length of a concave mirror using a convex lens.

• A concave mirror can be termed as a spherical mirror consisting of a reflecting surface that is curved inwards, and it also follows the laws of reflection of light.

• The light rays that are coming from a distant object are considered to be parallel to each other.

• If the image formed is real, inverted, and very small in size, then it is believed that the rays of light which are parallel to each other meet the point in the front of the mirror.

• The image that is formed by the concave mirror is considered to be real and can be obtained on the screen.

• f is used to express the difference between the principal axis P and the focus F of the concave mirror.

### Materials Required to Find the Focal Length of Concave Mirror Using Convex Lens

The following are the list of materials that are required to find the focal length of a concave mirror using a convex lens.

• A concave mirror

• A measuring scale

• A screen holder

• A mirror holder

• A mirror standÂ Â

### Procedure to Find the Focal Length of Concave Mirror Using Convex Lens

• The distance between the distinct objects selected should be more than 50ft.

• The object and the concave mirror that is placed on the mirror stand should be facing each other.

• The screen must be fixed in front of the reflecting surface of the mirror in order to obtain a clean and sharp image.

• The distance between the screen and the concave mirror can be determined by using a meter scale. This distance is the same as the focal length of the given concave mirror.

• This above process should be repeated three times to obtain the average of the focal length.Â Â Â

### How to Find the Focal Length of a Convex Mirror Using a Convex Lens?

The following are the ways that should be followed to find the focal length of a convex mirror using a convex lens.

• The convex mirror is thicker in the middle and is thinner at the edges. It is also known as a converging mirror.

• The refracted rays that are coming from the parallel beam of light converge on the other side of the convex mirror.

• The image that is obtained by the focus of the lens will be real, inverted, and very small in size.

• F is known as the focal length, which is considered as the distance between the optical center of the lens and the principal focus.

• There is a possibility of the image being formed on the screen if the image formed by the mirror is real.

### Materials Required to Find the Focal Length of Convex Mirror Using a Convex Lens

The following are the list of materials that are used to find the focal length of a convex mirror using a convex lens.

• A wooden bench

• A convex lens

• A lens holder

• A screen fixed to a stand

• A measuring scale

### Procedure to Find the Focal Length of a Convex Mirror Using a Convex Lens

• Try to arrange the lens and screen on the wooden bench without disturbing them.

• The lens should be placed in a holder facing the distant object.

• The holder should be placed with the screen on the bench.

• The position of the screen should be such that the sharp image of the distant object is obtained easily without any difficulties.

• The difference between the screen and the position of the lens is considered to be the focal length of the convex mirror.

• After completing the above steps, shift the focus towards other distant objects in order to calculate the focal length of the convex mirror.

1. Differentiate between the convex lens and the concave lens.

 Convex Lens Concave Lens The focal length of a convex lens is always calculated as positive. The focal length of a concave lens is always calculated as negative. Images obtained by the convex lens can be real or virtual. The image obtained by the concave lens is always virtual. In a convex lens, the light rays are seen to be converging towards the principal axis. In a concave lens, the light rays are seen to be diverging from the principal axis. This lens is used for correcting Myopia. This lens is used for correcting hypermetropia.

2. Discuss the types of reflection.

There are two types of reflection: regular reflection and irregular reflection.

Regular Reflection

This type of reflection is formed by a plane mirror having a smooth surface. In the case of a regular reflection, the image formed is clear and very much visible. The image formed here will be virtual as it is formed by a plane mirror.

Irregular Reflection

As we know that most of the natural surfaces are rough on the scale of the wavelength of light due to which the incident lights which are parallel to each other are reflected in several directions irregularly.