Environmental Chemistry - Detailed Guide

Environmental Chemistry includes a basic understanding of chemical and biochemical phenomena that readily occurs in nature. This is also considered as the unique study of how an unpolluted atmosphere works, and which naturally occurring chemicals are present, what effects they possess, and present in what concentrations. These would be unrealizable to study without proper information about Environmental Chemistry MCQ. It is considered as the multi-disciplinary science, which includes chemistry, physics, material science, agriculture, and many more. This session of MCQ of Environmental Chemistry will significantly help you to crack NEET examinations easily. 

Environmental Segment:

There are four environmental segments are present:

  • Atmosphere: It is the protective layer of gases and supports life and a hostile environment of outer space. It can transmit only UV, visible, IR, and radio-waves. 

  • Hydrosphere: It mainly covers more than 75% of the surface of the earth.  

  • Lithosphere: It consists of three major layers such as crust, mantle, and outer, inner core. It significantly consists of minerals from the outer mantle of solid earth. 

  • Biosphere: It replenishes us with foods, and there remains cycling of materials through excretion, expiration, and extinction of the form. 

Toxic Chemicals in the Environment:

The chemicals present in the atmosphere are both toxic and non-toxic in nature. Those toxic chemicals are continuously gushing from the industries into the air, water, soil, and finally to human food from the environment. Once these toxic chemicals are associated with the biological process, they create pernicious effects on the environment. 

There is an abundance of toxic elements found in the environment, and many of them are still unknown. These toxic metals are significantly known to provide detrimental effects to animals and human beings. These toxic metals are Al, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ag, In, Ti, Zn, Hg, As, Cd, Be, Ba, W, U, etc. All of these toxic metals are required in the least quantities for the development of animals. 

Classification of Toxic Matters:

Toxic matters are differentiated according to their effects and functions. These are:

  • Mutagens: In the field of genetics, a mutagen is mainly known to change the genetic material, which is DNA. There are a plethora of chemicals directly interacting with DNA, such as PAH, benzenes, aromatic amines, etc. But these are not mutagenic in nature, but they produce mutagenic compounds in cells through metabolic procedures. 

  • Carcinogens: These are mainly known as cancer-causing substances in animals and humans. There are plenty of carcinogens present such as radioactive isotopes, asbestos, radon, arsenic, and other heavy metals.   

  • Pesticides: These are known as the chemicals to protect the fodders and grains from insects. One superior example of pesticides is DDT. 

  • Food Additives: These are being applied to the food substances to conserve its flavor and elevates its appearance and taste. These are the types of food additives illustrated below:

  1. Anti-caking Agents: It is known to protect elements from getting lumpy such as potassium aluminum silicate, calcium polyphosphate, etc.  

  2. Antioxidants: It protects foods from going vapid or oxidized. Example: Vitamin C, disodium EDTA, etc.

  3. Artificial Sweeteners: Enhance the sweetness. Example: aspartame, saccharin, etc.

  4. Emulsifiers: Restrains fat from clotting together. Example: dimethyl polysiloxane.

  5. Colors: example: nicotinamide, turmeric, tartrazine, etc.

  6. Food Acids: Sustain the correct acid level in the food, such as 1,4-butyrolactone, potassium or sodium fumarate, etc.  

Parameters of Water Pollution:

These parameters are known to determine the extent and nature of the pollution in water:

  • Physical Parameter: Odor, temperature, color, turbidity, and density, etc.

  • Chemical Parameter: COD, Dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, BOD, redox potential, suspended solids, oxides, by-products, etc.

  • Biological Parameter: Various types of microorganisms, such as algae, fungi, bacteria, etc. 

Main Sources of Water Pollutants:

1. Point Sources: Point sources are known as which are swiftly identifiable at a single location, these are:

  • Raw sewage disposal

  • Sanitary landfills

  • Industrial waste disposal

  • Municipal sewage leakage

  • Aerial fallout

  • Combined sewer overflows

2. Non-point Sources: Non-point Sources are known as whose location can properly be identified; these are:

  • Pollution due to agricultural activities

  • Eutrophication

  • Pollution due to industrial chemicals

  • Heavy metals

  • Consequences of eutrophication

  • Control of eutrophication

MCQ:

This environmental chemistry MCQ for NEET will significantly help you to crack this examination:

1. Green Chemistry Defines Such Reactions Which:

  1. curtail the usage and production of detrimental chemicals

  2. Produce colors during various reactions

  3. Study the reactions in plants

  4. Are concerned with the depletion of the ozone layer.

Ans: (b) Produce colors during various reactions

2. Which of the Following Statement is not True:

  1. Clean water should possess the BOD value of less than 5 ppm

  2. The pH of drinking water should be in between 5.5-9.5

  3. The concentration of DO should be lower than 6 ppm is best for the growth of fish.

  4.  Oxides of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon are the most extensive air pollutant

Ans: (a) Clean water should possess the BOD value of less than 5 ppm.

3. What is Biosphere?

  1. The name of a bird

  2. By which life evolved

  3. In which isolated interact with each other

  4. An organic compound

Ans: (c) In which isolated people interact with each other.

4. The Vital Air Pollutant Amidst the Following is:

  1. CO2

  2. CO

  3. Sulfur

  4. N2

Ans: (b) CO. 

5.  The Pollution can be Controlled by:

  1. Checking atomic blasts

  2. Manufacturing electrically operated vehicles

  3. Treatment of Sewage

  4.  All of these

Ans: (d) All of these.