# NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 10

## NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 10 - Motion and Measurement of Distances

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 10 are provided by Vedantu, the leading online tutoring organization in India. The solutions are compiled by expert teachers of the subject strictly adhering to NCERT guidelines. They have explained the solutions in a step by step method to make it clearer. To score good marks in your exam, you should solve previous years’ question papers. Download NCERT Solutions for Motion and Measurement of Distances Class 6 pdf and secure excellent marks in your exam.

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## NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 10 - Motion and Measurement of Distances

Chapter 10 Class 6 Science covers the following topics:

10.1 Story Of Transport

10.2 How Far Have You Travelled? How Wide Is This Desk?

10.3 Some Measurements

10.4 Standard Units Of Measurements

10.5 Correct Measurement Of Length

10.6 Measuring The Length Of A Curved Line

10.7 Moving Things Around Us

10.8 Types Of Motion

### Introduction

The concept of rest and motion, and how distances can be measured accurately has been described in this chapter. The book uses a narrative style to help young students relate to the concepts taught. It is known that this style of teaching hastens the process of learning. The two siblings Paheli and Boojho are brought in and the different ideas are explained through their conversations and from their points of view. It is described here how the students in the two siblings’ classes visited different places during their school holidays via different means of transport, including aeroplane, train, bus and even a bullock-cart. Someone went for a fishing trip on a boat. They were then taught about vehicles that were conducted to Mars in spacecraft and moved on the surface of Mars with small wheels.

### Story of Transport

A brief history of how the transport system evolved is discussed in this section. It is mentioned that in the bygone era there existed no means of transport. People had to go from place to place on foot. Good had to be carried on their back or on animals. Boats were employed to move along waterways. Initially, simple hollowed-out logs of wood were used as boats. By and by, men learned to put several pieces of wood together and create the structure of a boat. They made the shapes to resemble those of aquatic animals. Then the students are asked to recall the discussions on the streamlined shape of fish in the previous chapters. It is then mentioned that the invention of the wheel brought in huge changes in the transport system. Gradually over several years, the design of the wheel got better. Animals drew vehicles moving on wheels. As recently as the start of the 19th-century people relied upon animal power for transport. A new source of power came into being with the discovery of the steam engine. Carriages and wagons were driven by steam engines and moved on railroads.

Afterwards, the automobiles were invented. Water transports like boats and ships were motorised. At the beginning of the 20th century, aeroplanes came into being. The designs were improved to carry passengers and goods. Other innovations in the field of transport in this century include electric trains, monorail, supersonic aeroplanes and spacecraft.

### How Far Have You Travelled? How Wide Is This Desk?

In this section, the students are made to think about matters as how people knew the distance they travelled, or how to determine if it is possible to walk all the way to someplace or it is necessary to take some transport. The importance of knowing the answer to “how far” in order to be certain about the method to reach that place is mentioned. It is also mentioned that at times it becomes vital to know the length and breadth of items. For instance, the desks in the classroom are mentioned. Through a very relatable example, the need for using standards in measurement is explained. It is shown how the lengths of the desks in a classroom, when measured with one set of Gilli danda, can vary from that measured with another set. Then the need for measuring lengths and distances are discussed. The example of a tailor needing to measure the length of cloth to make an article of clothing is cited. Another example of a carpenter needing to know the height and width of a cupboard to be certain about the amount of wood necessary for building its door is also used. A third example of a farmer needing to know the length and breadth of the area of his land to be sure of the amount of seed to sow and amount of water to use for his crops. Other examples like a person’s height, the length and breadth of common everyday items, the distance between two cities or even that of the Moon from the Earth are mentioned. The underlying concept in all these examples is mentioned as the involvement of distance between two places, whether close by like the two ends of a table of far apart like Jammu and Kanyakumari.

### Activity for making measurements

Then an activity to find out what to do to measure distances or lengths is described, like measuring the length and breadth of a classroom using feet or using hand span to find out the width of a table in the classroom. The students are instructed to measure the lengths of their feet or their hand spans with a string denote that length as one string length and then use the whole or fractions of that string length to make the measurements. Thereby it is explained that measurement involves comparing two quantities, one known and the other unknown. Students note that the known fixed quantity is called a unit. It is then explained that the results of a measurement process contain two parts. The first part is the number and the second part is the unit of measurement. This concept is further explained with the example of measuring the length of a room using feet. It is mentioned that if the length of a room comes as 12 lengths of one foot then 12 is the number part of the measurement and ‘one-foot length’ is the unit of measurement in this case. Then students are asked to notice that in their activity of measuring a room-length with feet, it is observed that the number part in every student’s measurement of a room is not the same. The case of measuring the width of a table with the hand-spans of the students is the same, the width varies from one student to another. It is explained that the reason this happens is that the length of feet and hand span of two people may not be equal. Therefore, such arbitrary units will not be able to express measurement perfectly. To express a measurement to a person with say, a hand span as a unit, that person will need to know the length of the hand span as well. This shows how standard units of measurement are necessary that stays the same at all conditions.

### Standard Units of Measurements

After explaining the need for having standard units of measurement, such standards are discussed in detail in this section. It is mentioned that in ancient times, there were no such standards and units like the length of a foot, the width of a finger, as well as the expanse of a footstep, were generally employed as different units of measurements. The Indus valley civilization is mentioned to have had excellent units of measurement since excavations have revealed faultless geometrical structures. The cubit is mentioned as the length from the tip of the fingers to the elbow and it was used as the standard of length in ancient Egypt as well as other regions of the ancient world. It is also said that the “foot” was also taken as an element of length in different regions of the world. It is clarified that the length denoted by a foot varied to a small extent from one part of the world to another. It is also mentioned that a yard of cloth was denoted by the distance between a person’s chin and the end of their outstretched arm. Romans are mentioned to have used paces or footsteps for measuring length. India is said to measure the small length in terms of angul or finger and mutthi or fist. It is mentioned that even to these date flower sellers in India use their forearms as length units to measure garlands. Per convenience, many body parts continue to be used as units of length. Nevertheless, people's body parts usually vary in size. This led to confusion in finding out the correct dimensions. It is mentioned that a standard unit of measurement known as the metric system was developed in France in 1790. It was widely popular. To maintain uniformity that is consistency in measurement, scientists all over the world accept standard units of measurement. International System of Units or the SI units is named as the standard system of units used in modern times. The metre is the SI unit of length. It is mentioned that 1 metre (m) when divided into 100 equal portions, each portion is known as a centimetre or cm. it is made clear that each centimetre is further divided into ten parts each of which is called a millimetre (mm). From this, it is explained that 1 m is equal to 100 cm and 1 cm equals 10 mm. However, to measure larger distances, a metre is too small and then the larger unit of length, the kilometre (km) is used. It is explained that 1 km is equal to 1000 m. after this it is mentioned that the students will be introduced to the correct method of measuring lengths and distances.

# NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 10

## Class 6 Science Chapter 10 NCERT Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 10 are provided by Vedantu, the leading online tutoring organization in India. The solutions are compiled by expert teachers of the subject strictly adhering to NCERT guidelines. They have explained the solutions in a step by step method to make it clearer. To score good marks in your exam, you should solve previous years’ question papers. Download NCERT Solutions for Motion and Measurement of Distances Class 6 pdf and secure excellent marks in your exam.

### Chapter 10 - Motion and Measurement of Distances

Chapter 10 Class 6 Science covers the following topics:

10.1 Story Of Transport

10.2 How Far Have You Travelled? How Wide Is This Desk?

10.3 Some Measurements

10.4 Standard Units Of Measurements

10.5 Correct Measurement Of Length

10.6 Measuring The Length Of A Curved Line

10.7 Moving Things Around Us

10.8 Types Of Motion

### Introduction

The concept of rest and motion, and how distances can be measured accurately has been described in this chapter. The book uses a narrative style to help young students relate to the concepts taught. It is known that this style of teaching hastens the process of learning. The two siblings Paheli and Boojho are brought in and the different ideas are explained through their conversations and from their points of view. It is described here how the students in the two siblings’ classes visited different places during their school holidays via different means of transport, including aeroplane, train, bus and even a bullock-cart. Someone went for a fishing trip on a boat. They were then taught about vehicles that were conducted to Mars in spacecraft and moved on the surface of Mars with small wheels.

### Story of Transport

A brief history of how the transport system evolved is discussed in this section. It is mentioned that in the bygone era there existed no means of transport. People had to go from place to place on foot. Good had to be carried on their back or on animals. Boats were employed to move along waterways. Initially, simple hollowed-out logs of wood were used as boats. By and by, men learned to put several pieces of wood together and create the structure of a boat. They made the shapes to resemble those of aquatic animals. Then the students are asked to recall the discussions on the streamlined shape of fish in the previous chapters. It is then mentioned that the invention of the wheel brought in huge changes in the transport system. Gradually over several years, the design of the wheel got better. Animals drew vehicles moving on wheels. As recently as the start of the 19th-century people relied upon animal power for transport. A new source of power came into being with the discovery of the steam engine. Carriages and wagons were driven by steam engines and moved on railroads.

Afterwards, the automobiles were invented. Water transports like boats and ships were motorised. At the beginning of the 20th century, aeroplanes came into being. The designs were improved to carry passengers and goods. Other innovations in the field of transport in this century include electric trains, monorail, supersonic aeroplanes and spacecraft.

### How Far Have You Travelled? How Wide Is This Desk?

In this section, the students are made to think about matters as how people knew the distance they travelled, or how to determine if it is possible to walk all the way to someplace or it is necessary to take some transport. The importance of knowing the answer to “how far” in order to be certain about the method to reach that place is mentioned. It is also mentioned that at times it becomes vital to know the length and breadth of items. For instance, the desks in the classroom are mentioned. Through a very relatable example, the need for using standards in measurement is explained. It is shown how the lengths of the desks in a classroom, when measured with one set of Gilli danda, can vary from that measured with another set. Then the need for measuring lengths and distances are discussed. The example of a tailor needing to measure the length of cloth to make an article of clothing is cited. Another example of a carpenter needing to know the height and width of a cupboard to be certain about the amount of wood necessary for building its door is also used. A third example of a farmer needing to know the length and breadth of the area of his land to be sure of the amount of seed to sow and amount of water to use for his crops. Other examples like a person’s height, the length and breadth of common everyday items, the distance between two cities or even that of the Moon from the Earth are mentioned. The underlying concept in all these examples is mentioned as the involvement of distance between two places, whether close by like the two ends of a table of far apart like Jammu and Kanyakumari.

### Activity for making measurements

Then an activity to find out what to do to measure distances or lengths is described, like measuring the length and breadth of a classroom using feet or using hand span to find out the width of a table in the classroom. The students are instructed to measure the lengths of their feet or their hand spans with a string denote that length as one string length and then use the whole or fractions of that string length to make the measurements. Thereby it is explained that measurement involves comparing two quantities, one known and the other unknown. Students note that the known fixed quantity is called a unit. It is then explained that the results of a measurement process contain two parts. The first part is the number and the second part is the unit of measurement. This concept is further explained with the example of measuring the length of a room using feet. It is mentioned that if the length of a room comes as 12 lengths of one foot then 12 is the number part of the measurement and ‘one-foot length’ is the unit of measurement in this case. Then students are asked to notice that in their activity of measuring a room-length with feet, it is observed that the number part in every student’s measurement of a room is not the same. The case of measuring the width of a table with the hand-spans of the students is the same, the width varies from one student to another. It is explained that the reason this happens is that the length of feet and hand span of two people may not be equal. Therefore, such arbitrary units will not be able to express measurement perfectly. To express a measurement to a person with say, a hand span as a unit, that person will need to know the length of the hand span as well. This shows how standard units of measurement are necessary that stays the same at all conditions.

### Standard Units of Measurements

After explaining the need for having standard units of measurement, such standards are discussed in detail in this section. It is mentioned that in ancient times, there were no such standards and units like the length of a foot, the width of a finger, as well as the expanse of a footstep, were generally employed as different units of measurements. The Indus valley civilization is mentioned to have had excellent units of measurement since excavations have revealed faultless geometrical structures. The cubit is mentioned as the length from the tip of the fingers to the elbow and it was used as the standard of length in ancient Egypt as well as other regions of the ancient world. It is also said that the “foot” was also taken as an element of length in different regions of the world. It is clarified that the length denoted by a foot varied to a small extent from one part of the world to another. It is also mentioned that a yard of cloth was denoted by the distance between a person’s chin and the end of their outstretched arm. Romans are mentioned to have used paces or footsteps for measuring length. India is said to measure the small length in terms of angul or finger and mutthi or fist. It is mentioned that even to these date flower sellers in India use their forearms as length units to measure garlands. Per convenience, many body parts continue to be used as units of length. Nevertheless, people's body parts usually vary in size. This led to confusion in finding out the correct dimensions. It is mentioned that a standard unit of measurement known as the metric system was developed in France in 1790. It was widely popular. To maintain uniformity that is consistency in measurement, scientists all over the world accept standard units of measurement. International System of Units or the SI units is named as the standard system of units used in modern times. The metre is the SI unit of length. It is mentioned that 1 metre (m) when divided into 100 equal portions, each portion is known as a centimetre or cm. it is made clear that each centimetre is further divided into ten parts each of which is called a millimetre (mm). From this, it is explained that 1 m is equal to 100 cm and 1 cm equals 10 mm. However, to measure larger distances, a metre is too small and then the larger unit of length, the kilometre (km) is used. It is explained that 1 km is equal to 1000 m. after this it is mentioned that the students will be introduced to the correct method of measuring lengths and distances.

### Correct Measurement of Length

The different types of measuring tools utilized in the day to day life are discussed in this segment. A metre scale is employed for measuring length. A rod is used by a cloth merchant while a tailor uses a measuring tape. This displays that choosing a suitable device is the first step towards the measurement of length. Measuring the girth of a tree on the circumference of one’s chest are cited as examples and it is explained that for such measurements a tape measure will be suitable and not a scale. On the other hand, measuring small lengths like the length of a pencil is easier with a scale that comes in a geometry box. The cautions that are to be observed and norms followed while taking measurements are next listed. It is said here that the scale should be in contact with the object being measured along its length. The students are then instructed to not measure from the zero marks in case the mark is not clearly visible for some reason. They are advised to start measuring from such other marks like the 1 cm mark, and then subtract the reading of that particular mark from the total reading to get the correct measurement. The position of the eye to get the correct measurement is also discussed. It is mentioned that the eye must be directed at the front of the point where the measurement will begin. These instructions are also explained with relevant diagrams.

### Activity for measuring the height of a person

Students are taught about measuring height both with the hand span as well as by using the metre scale with this activity. They are instructed to ask one of their classmates to stand with their back against the wall. Then the student has to mark the wall at a point exactly over the head of the classmate. Then, first using hand spans and then again using the metre scale, the student has to find out the distance of the floor from this mark. Then all the students are to measure this length in a similar manner and the results have to be examined. It is mentioned that the results of measuring by hand span might differ from student to student as the length of the span of the hands of different students vary. It is explained that even when the measurements are being taken with the standard scale there might be slight variations due to small errors made during taking observations. It is also mentioned that details about the significance of understanding and dealing with such errors will be discussed in higher classes.

### Measuring the Length of a Curved Line

This section deals with the correct procedure of measuring the length of a curved line. The students are informed that measuring the length of a curved line directly is not possible using a metre scale. This can be done with the help of a thread. The procedure is explained with the help of an activity.

### Activity to measure the length of a curved line by using a thread

The students are asked to make a knot near the ends of a thread. Then they are instructed to place this knot at a certain point. After that, they are to place a small part of the thread down the length of the curved line. The thread should be kept tightly stretched with the help of the student’s fingers and thumb. Then the thread is to be held firm at that point with one hand. On the other hand, the student is to then stretch a little more of the thread along the curved line. This process is to be reiterated until the student reaches the very end of the curved line. They should then mark the point on the thread that touches the endpoint of the curved line. The next step is to stretch the thread out beside a metre scale and to determine the length of the thread between the knot and the marked point on the thread. Thus, the length of the curved line is obtained. It is explained with the help of such activities that a person needs to be very careful to ensure that distances and length are being measured correctly.

### Moving Things Around Us

With the help of activity, the students are introduced to the concepts of motion and rest. They are asked to think about everyday objects around them and animals and people as well, like a school bag, people sitting or walking about, a mosquito, and so on. Then they are asked to consider which of these moves and which are still. Then curiosity is awakened in their minds about how to decide whether an object is moving or is resting. They are asked to remember that objects as a flying bird are not at the same position after some time as it was at the beginning when it was observed. Conversely, an object like a table remains unchanged in position. This is mentioned as the basis of making a decision about the state of an object, at rest or in motion. Then the students are asked to consider the motion of an ant. With the help of another activity, the concept of motion is further detailed. Students are instructed to keep some sugar on a large sheet of paper spread over the ground. It is mentioned that it is probable that ants, being attracted by the sugar, will start crawling over the sheet. The students are then encouraged to follow the positions of anyone ant with a pencil. They are asked to mark the position where the ant first crawled on to the paper. After some time of crawling along with the sheet, its position is again asked to be marked. The students are to keep marking the position of the ant after every few seconds. Finally, they are to remove the sugar and the ants from the paper and connect the various points they have plotted along with the paper with arrows, to indicate the direction of movement of the ant. It is explained that each point that was marked on the paper reflects the position of the ant after every few seconds. Thus, it is impressed upon the students that motion is a type of an alteration in the location of an object over time.

After that, the students are asked to consider objects like a clock, a sewing machine, or an electric fan. It is made clear that these objects are not changing their position from one place to another with time, yet these should be considered as moving. This is because some of their parts are in motion, like the blades of a fan or the hands of a clock. It is asked if the movement matches that of a vehicle like a train. Thereby the difference in types of motion is underscored.

### Types of Motion

The students are asked that they might have noticed the movement of a vehicle along a straight road, or the parade of soldiers performing march-past, and the free fall of a stone. They are asked to consider the type of motion. The example of sprinters in a 100-metre race who move in straight lines is also cited. The students are asked to think of more such examples from their surroundings. Then it is explained that in all the examples mentioned, the objects are moving down a straight path. This type of motion in a straight line is then defined as rectilinear motion.

Another activity is mentioned to engage the students and to explain the types of motion in a lucid manner. The students are instructed to take a stone, tie a thread to it and spin it round and round with their hands. They are urged to notice the motion of the stone. It is mentioned that the stone can be seen to travel in a circular path. The students are asked to note that the distance of the stone from the hand of the student remains unchanged. It is then emphasized that this type of motion is known as circular motion. Some examples of circular motion are provided, like the motion of a particular point marked on the blade of an electric fan, or that of the clock hands. It is made clear that the electric fan and the clock are not changing their positions, these objects are not moving from place to place. However, the hands of the clock and the blades of the fan are rotating. While they rotate, the distance of any point marked anywhere on the blades of a fan or the hands of a clock will remain the same from the centre of the clock and the fan respectively.

Another kind of motion is then described, it's known as periodic motion. In this case, the object repeats its motion after some time. The example is given of the stone that had been tied with the string. It had been rotated in a circular path in the previous activity. In this case, the students are asked to keep the string held in their hands and to allow the stone to hand from it. They are then instructed to pull the stone to one side with one of their hands and then to let it go while holding on to the string. It is stated that the motion that results is that of a pendulum. It is explained that the pendulum helps one understand the nature of periodic motion. Some more examples of periodic motion are cited that include the pendulum, the to and fro motion of the branch of a tree, a child swinging, the strumming of strings if a guitar, or the surface of drums that are being played. Students are asked to note that in all these instances of periodic motion, the object or a part of it reiterates its motion after a certain time period.

Next, the students are asked to recall the activity where they were urged to think of objects and consider whether those were in motion or at rest. They are asked if they had observed a sewing machine. It is mentioned that if they have studied a sewing machine they must have noticed that the machine itself stays unaltered in position but its wheel continues to move in a circular motion, while its needle goes on moving up and down incessantly as long as the wheel goes on rotating. It is explained that the needle, in this case, is showing periodic motion.

Then the students are asked about the motion of a ball on the ground. The ball is mentioned to be showing two types of motion at the same time, while it rotates over the ground as well as moves forward. Therefore, the ball, in this case, is displaying both rotational as well as rectilinear motion. The students are encouraged to scour their minds to think of objects undergoing different types of motion simultaneously.

### Conclusion

The chapter is then wrapped up with the summarization of all the concepts that were discussed. Students are reminded that they performed several measurement activities and different types of motion were explained. It is stated that motion is the change in position of an object with time. It is explained that the change in position can be ascertained through measuring distances. It is also stated that this action helps one determine the speed of motion, how fast or slow the motion is occurring.

Then the chapter is concluded by impressing onto the minds of the students that motion is all around the earth and even the universe, by citing several examples. The butterfly moving around from one flower to another, a stream running over clean rounded pebbles, a snail slowly trailing over the ground, an aeroplane rushing through the air creating jet trails, the moon moving around the Earth, the blood coursing through our veins, and everywhere that the student can look around them, they can see examples of some type of motion. Hence, it is important for the students to learn about the nature and types of motion and measure distance travelled the outcome of the motion.

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