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Data Collection and Organization of Data

Last updated date: 21st Feb 2024
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What is Data?

Data is a collection of information that represents an idea, such as facts, statistics, numbers, attributes, observations, and measurements. There are two types of information. Quantitative data is concerned with the quantity of something. Another type of data that deals with the description of things are qualitative data. Data that is qualitative can be noticed but not measured. Some instances of quantitative and qualitative data are as follows:

Quantitative Data

Qualitative Data

Age of your car

Colour of the sky

Number of students in a class

The softness of your skin

Number of pennies in your piggy bank

Influence of extracurricular activities in a school

What is a Database?

An organized collection of logically related data is known as a database. A database is a collection of data organized for the collection of structured data stored electronically in a computer system. A database management system (DBMS) is usually in charge of a database. The data, the DBMS, and the applications that go with them are referred to as a database system, which is commonly abbreviated to just a database. A database is a collection of data organized to make processing and data querying efficient, data in the most common types of databases in use today are often described in columns and rows in a sequence of tables. Data may be accessed, updated, managed, regulated, and organised with ease.

Data Collection and Organization

Data can be obtained and analysed in a variety of ways. Surveys, focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires are among the tools that researchers can employ. A survey is a tool that may be used to have a quick conversation about a certain issue. A focus group is a group of people who are interviewed or observed about a certain issue.

After the data has been collected, the following step is to an organised collection of data by grouping it in a logical order that makes it easier to read. We can use tallies and frequency tables to organise data.


Tallies are a method of counting in which you record each item as you count it by drawing a short vertical line. To make it simpler to see the tally marks, draw a diagonal line over the first four lines for every fifth mark, as shown in the table below for the number 5. Then, as shown for the numbers 8, 10, and 12, leave a space before starting the next group of four tally marks. Tallies have the benefit of allowing you to keep track of your total while counting, and tally tables are simple to read because you can count in fives.

Frequency Tables

When we finish counting and adding up all of the tally marks, the totals tell us how many times the event happened, which is known as the frequency. The frequency of red cars was 7, the frequency of green cars was 3, the frequency of blue cars was 4, and the frequency of yellow cars was 2. A frequency table displays a list of various categories (such as car colours) including the number of times each item appears. The number of different coloured cars is shown in this frequency table.

Car colours










The categories are listed in the first column of a frequency table. The categories in this example are the car colours, which are red, green, blue, and yellow. We keep track of the frequency in the second column, which is the number of times each category occurs.

What is Data Collection?

Data collection is the process of collecting and analyzing data on certain variables in a structured manner, allowing one to answer pertinent questions and evaluate outcomes. In all academic domains, including physical and social sciences, humanities, and business, data collecting is an important part of the research process. While the methodologies differ depending on the discipline, the emphasis on accurate and honest data collection stays the same. The purpose of any data collecting is to collect high-quality evidence that can be analysed to come up with convincing and credible answers to the questions posed.

Data collection is a method of gathering and analysing information from a number of sources in order to obtain a complete and accurate picture of a subject. Data collecting allows a person or organization to answer pertinent questions, assess outcomes, and forecast future probability and trends. Maintaining the integrity of research, making informed business decisions, and guaranteeing quality assurance all need accurate data collection.

Types of Data Collection

The collection of data from an observational study is called raw data. It involves two types of data:

  • Primary Data: When the data is collected without any plan or design is called primary data. The data obtained will be accurate, time-consuming, and expensive.

  • Secondary Data: If the data is obtained through any published source or unpublished source is called secondary data. It is not accurate and cheap.

What is Data Organization?

The activity of categorising and classifying data to make it more useable is known as data organisation. You'll need to organise your data in a logical and orderly manner, similar to how we organise critical documents in a file folder, so you and anybody else who uses it can readily locate what they're searching for.

How Should One Have an Organized Collection of Data Files?

It takes some planning to set up a system that allows you to access your files, avoid duplication, and ensure that your data can be backed up, whether you're working on a stand-alone computer or on a networked drive. Creating a logical folder structure is a good place to start. The following pointers should help in creating such a system:

  • Use Folders – Organize files into folders so that information about a particular subject is all in one place.

  • Adhere to Existing Procedures – Look for tried-and-true methods in your team or department that you can use.

  • Give Appropriate Name to Folder – Folders should be named reflecting the fields of work to which they pertain, rather than after specific researchers or students. This helps new employees joining the workspace manage the file system and avoids confusion in shared workspaces if a member of staff leaves.

  • Be Consistent – While choosing a naming convention for your folders. It's important to stick to a method after you've decided on one. Try to agree on a naming scheme from the beginning of your research project if at all possible.

  • Give a Good and Attractive Structure – Begin with a small number of folders for the broad concepts, and then expand on them with more particular folders.

  • Backup – Ensure that your files are backed up, whether they are on your local disc or on a network drive.

  • Sharing Files – Firstly gather organized data and then share data.

Practice Questions

1. The types of research data among the following are

  1. Organised data and unorganised data

  2. Qualitative data and quantitative data

  3. Processed data and unprocessed data

  4. None of the above

Ans: Option b is correct

2. The type of data that is collected from the origin is

  1. Primary data

  2. Secondary data

  3. Tertiary data

  4. Quaternary data

Ans: Option a is correct

3. Which of the following is the example of primary data

  1. Newspaper

  2. Book

  3. Census report

  4. Journal

Ans: Option c is correct

4. The collection of primary data can be done by

  1. Surveys

  2. Experiments

  3. None

  4. Both a and b are correct

Ans: Option d is correct


The process involved in the measurement or gathering of the data is called data collection. It is required to analyze and store the data, thereby helping to build the database. This helps the companies to save money.

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FAQs on Data Collection and Organization of Data

1. What is the collection of organised data?

A database is a collection of data organized for the arrangement and god to understand. The information is usually structured to model relevant features of reality in a way that supports the processes that require it.

2. What is meant by a collection of data?

Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest in a systematic manner that allows researchers to answer research questions, test hypotheses, and gather the requirements.

3. What are the four types of data collection?

Data is grouped into four main types based on methods of collection: 

  • Observational  

  • Experimental

  • Simulation

  • Derived