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The Making of the National Movement

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What is the National Movement?

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The National Movement of the 19th century is the sole reason why India exists as an independent nation today. The nationalism in India rose due to the influence of the French Renaissance and the subsequent French Revolution. The traditional Indian identity has its roots deep into the ancient era. Hence two hundred years of colonial rule led to the rise of several Political, Socio-Cultural, and Economic unrests throughout the various princely states. Igniting the fire in the masses led to the eventual creation of the Indian National Congress. Hence it became the cause of the rise of nationalism in India. 


Causes of Indian National Movement

Indians led a life of oppression under British rule. They wanted to get rid of the torture of the imperialists. Moreover, some of the reforms unknowingly became responsible for uniting the vision of the colony’s people.

  1. The British brought about the Political Unification of India. The country was supposed to have a common administrative framework, one judicial system, and one set of laws. All the rules would be similar anywhere and everywhere in the country.

  2. The development of the transport system connected people throughout the country. New roads connecting all the regions, the introduction to the railways, the telegraph, and the faster postal system immensely united the people irrespective of their caste, class, or religion. 

  3. Western Education was the biggest boon of the British Raj. Although it was introduced in India to make faithful servants of the imperialists, out the people, it leads to the revolution of minds. Great leaders like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Dadabhai Naoroji, Swami Vivekananda, and others were born. They revolutionized the millions of youth of the country towards the path of logic and liberty. 

  4. The birth of the Indian Press and Newspapers was a weapon to inject the seeds of patriotism, nationalism, and freedom into the minds of the people. Now, the message of nationalism was spread, without the knowledge of the Britishers.

  5. The rise of the Vernacular languages, the great works of literature by the authors like Rabindranath Tagore and Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, in the regional tongue, described to the people the everyday torture they were facing. These eminent people lit the lamp of nationalism among all.

  6. The Indian Scholars brought forward the rich history of our culture and the great emperors who have ruled us.

The continuous exploitation of the Indian economy, the draining of the inherent wealth to support the Industrial Revolution of England, paralysis of the Indian trading by taking away all the raw materials from the country infuriated the masses, who eventually united against the British rule.


The Major Events Which Describe What is the National Movement of India

Several events are present in the timeline of the National Movement. From those, we also analyze the various problems that are faced during the national movement. The emergence of the Indian National Congress in 1885, the Partition of Bengal, Surat Split, Formation of Muslim League, and The National Movement during the First World War happened in the first half. Gandhi and other Revolutionaries and the movements which directly led to the achievement of Independence occurred in the second half. 


Questions and Answers

Here is an example of the making of national movement Class 8 questions and answers.


Q. Name an Indian Word that Came to the Forefront of Nationalism. What is its Meaning?

Answer. One of the many words that symbolized the national identity is “Sarvajanik.”It means “of or for all the people” and is made from the two individual words “Sarva” meaning “all” and “Janik” meaning people.


Q. Write Down the Slogan Raised by Lokmanya Tilak.

Answer: Tilak had declared that “Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it!” 


Q. Why were the People Dissatisfied with the British Rule in the Latter Part of the 19th Century?

Answer. People were going against British rule because the British had passed the Arms Act which was against the religious sentiments of the people, they were exploiting the resources of the country. The government would confiscate any medium of free speech like newspapers and the press. The act of 1883 which allowed Indians to conduct the trial of the Europeans, was forced to be withdrawn by the white-skinned. All together, Indians were extremely dissatisfied with the imperial government.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What is the Difference Between Moderates and Extremists?

Answer. The Indian National Congress underwent a split at the Surat Session of the Congress. It came to be known as the Surat Split. It was crucial in the history of the Indian National Movement. This division happened due to the differences in ideology, methodology, social bases, and most importantly the aims and goals of the two groups of political thinkers. The moderates aimed to bring about social and administrative reforms in the already existing British Government. Their aim was not absolute freedom from British rule.


The extremists believed in attaining Swaraj or complete Independence. While moderates had faith in the Europeans, the Extremists were radical and aggressive and believed in self-reliance as the weapon against domination. These were the main differences between the two. 

Q2. What is the True Meaning of the Term Swaraj?

Answer. The term Swaraj means “self-rule” used to indicate “home rule”. The people of India were distressed by the atrocities which the British Raj was inflicting upon the country. The incident which infuriated the Indian mass was the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre at Amritsar. A peaceful protest against the British Raj was going on, when General Dyer, of the British Indian troop, disrupted the peace and killed thousands of innocent men, women, and children present at the Bagh. The place was closed from three sides and did not let people escape. The news spread throughout India and led to more protests from the leaders and masses. Hence, the word Swaraj or self-rule coined by Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati came to the forefront. Mahatma Gandhi used it to signify that India aimed for complete Independence from British rule.