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Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere

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Know About Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere

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We usually use references of some hemispheres to define the location of the country or we use the name of the continent it is part of. If we talk about India, it is present in the Northern-Eastern Hemisphere of the globe. In this article, we will discuss the two latitudinal divisions of the Earth i.e Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. We will talk about what is the meaning of the northern and southern hemispheres and their distinctive features and will learn the difference between the two at the end. This article will help you to understand the major divisions of the Earth that will be useful in your studies.


Introduction - Northern and Southern Hemisphere

Hemisphere:

It basically refers to the half divisions of anybody. We can divide the Earth into various such equal divisions. These divisions can be longitudinal or latitudinal. On the basis of an imaginary line of the equator, it can be the northern or southern hemisphere and on the basis of the prime meridian, it can be the eastern or western hemisphere. The Northern and Southern Hemisphere are basically hemispheres of the Earth on a latitudinal basis. Let's study these two important hemispheres deeply:


(Images will be uploaded soon)


Northern Hemisphere

Let's have a look at all the aspects of the Northern Hemisphere.


Northern Hemisphere Definition & Meaning:

The part of the Earth above the imaginary line i.e. the equator is called the Northern hemisphere. Everything above this 0° line is part of this Hemisphere. It is half part of the Earth which consists of more land than water and has the largest population of the Earth.


Features

Various features that describe this Hemisphere are mentioned below:


Topography:

It has a wide variety of topography and climatic features. This hemisphere has more land as compared to the southern part and this availability of land plays a great role in its Geography. The availability of such huge land along with water bodies plays a great impact on weather and climate patterns. The land in this hemisphere consists of,

  • Whole Europe

  • Whole North America

  • The entire continent of Asia

  • A small portion of South America

  • ⅔ part of the African continent

  • Very Small parts of the continent Australia and islands in New Guinea.

The lithosphere of this hemisphere consists of different types of topography. Mountains, plateaus, hills, valleys, rivers and lakes, plains, islands, etc. all kinds of topography and landforms can be found here.


Climate:

The climate varies with respect to the location. This hemisphere has both tropical and temperate climates. Tropic of cancer and arctic circle both are both of this hemisphere which provides different climate zones to this hemisphere. The regions between the tropic of cancer and equator experience hot temperature i.e between 0° to 23.5°N. The regions between 23.5°N to 66.5°N are the regions that are influenced by both the tropics and the poles. In the northern temperate zones, the temperature is relatively cold with different seasons. Mediterranean type of climate and British type of climate are also distinctive features of the climate of this hemisphere.


Seasons:

Different seasons are there in this hemisphere.

  • In June, it experiences summer solstice.

  • In September, it experiences the autumnal equinox. This is the time of the autumn season.

  • In December, it experiences the winter season.

  • And in March, it experiences vernal equinox. This is the time of spring season in this hemisphere.

Coriolis Force:

It is one of the most important components of the physical geography of the northern hemisphere. This is a special effect because of which various objects deflect in a specific direction. In the northern hemisphere, the objects move in the right direction or can say in the clockwise direction. This affects the movement of the water, or atmospheric air or winds, etc which leads to a huge effect on the regular weather and climatic conditions. 


Northern Hemisphere Population:

The northern hemisphere continent has a large area of land and thus there are a number of countries and places for the people to live. The majority of the population of the Earth lives in this hemisphere and it has all large or small cities of the world. Similarly, the majority of the population of various varieties of vegetation and wildlife is also present in this hemisphere.


Southern Hemisphere

Let's have a look at all the aspects of the southern hemisphere.


Southern Hemisphere Definition or Meaning:

The part of the earth below the imaginary line of the equator is called the southern hemisphere. Everything that lies under it is part of the southern hemisphere. It consists of around 81% of water (which is more than the Northern Hemisphere) and 32% of the land (which is less than the Northern Hemisphere).


Features

The various features of the southern hemisphere are mentioned below:


Topography:

Similar to the Northern hemisphere, there is also a wide variety of topography in the southern hemisphere. As we can see on the map as well, if we compare both hemispheres, this hemisphere has less lithosphere and has more water. It is also considered a bit larger than the northern one. The water bodies present here are the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, Southern Ocean, and the South Pacific ocean. Southern hemisphere continents and the land here consists of;

  • Antarctica

  • Australia

  • The majority part of South America

  • ⅓ part of Africa

  • Islands of Asia

  • Newzealand

  • Islands in Oceania

Climate:

It has more water than land and water takes more time to warm as well as to cool down and thus it has a milder climate than the upper hemisphere. Tropic of Capricorn and Antarctic circle are part of this hemisphere and they have a great influence on the temperature and climatic conditions of this Hemisphere. 0° to 23.5°S are torrid zones which are influenced by both equator and Tropic of Capricorn whereas 23.5°S to 66.5°S serves the South Temperate zone which mostly consists of water and beyond 66.5°S is the South Frigid zone that covers 4.12% of the area of the Earth.


Seasons:

Similar to the Northern hemisphere, there are also different types of seasons during the year here in this hemisphere as well. The seasons are not similar but exactly opposite to the northern hemisphere. These are mentioned below:

  • In the month of June, it experiences winter solstice when there is the summer solstice in the northern hemisphere.

  • In the month of September, it experiences the spring season or we can say vernal equinox when there is an autumnal equinox above.

  • In the month of December, it experiences the summer season or summer solstice when there are winters above.

  • In the month of March, it experiences the autumn season, or can say the autumnal equinox when there is spring season above.

Coriolis Force:

It is one of the most important components of the physical geography of the southern hemisphere as well. This is a special force because of which various objects deflect in a specific direction. In the southern hemisphere, the objects move in the left direction or can stay in the anti-clockwise direction. It can change the directions of the trade winds which move from the southern hemisphere to the northern hemisphere or vice versa. This affects the movement of the water, or atmospheric air or winds, etc which leads to a huge effect on the regular weather and climatic conditions.


Population:

As this is already clear that it has less land as compared to the above hemisphere thus, less population is there. It has around 32.7% of the land of the Earth and only 10 to 12% of the population of the Earth lives here.

The difference between the two hemispheres is mentioned in the table:


Difference Between Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere

Northern Hemisphere

Southern Hemisphere

It is the part above the 0°.

It is the part below 0°.

It has more land than water. It consists of around 68% land of the Earth.

It has more water than land. It consists of around 32% land of the Earth.

The average annual temperature of this is 15.2°C. which is relatively higher than the southern one because of the presence of more land.

The average annual temperature of this hemisphere is 13.3°C which is relatively lower than the northern one because of the presence of more water. 

The sequence of the seasons here with respect to June - September - December - March is Summer - Autumn - Winter - Spring. 

The sequence of the seasons with respect to June - September - December - March is Winter - Spring - Summer - Autumn. 

The objects move in the right direction or clockwise direction in this hemisphere because of the Coriolis force.

The objects move in the left direction or the anti-clockwise direction in this hemisphere because of the Coriolis force.

It has the maximum population in the world.

It has less population than the northern hemisphere.

It consists of all the continents except Antarctica. Even a few parts of Australia are also part of this. 

It consists of all the continents except North America and Europe. 

It consists of the North Pacific Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Arctic Ocean.

It consists of the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, Southern Ocean, and the South Pacific ocean.


Conclusion

Thus, in this article, we have covered everything required and necessary about the two hemispheres of the Earth ie. The Northern hemisphere and Southern hemisphere. We have studied their various features such as their topography, land or ocean composition, population, the occurrence of seasons, temperature and climatic conditions, the effect of Coriolis force, etc. All these things clearly define and demarcate the difference between the two as well. This article will not only increase your basic knowledge about the Earth and its divisions but also will help in your academic journey.

We have read in detail what is the northern hemisphere and what is the southern hemisphere and their related features comprehensively. Let’s practice some of the related FAQs:

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What are Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere?

Ans. The Northern Hemisphere is the part of the Earth above the imaginary line i.e. the equator. Everything above this 0° line is part of this Hemisphere. It is that half part of the Earth that consists of more land than water and has the largest population of the Earth whereas the part of the earth below the imaginary line of the equator is called the southern hemisphere. Everything that lies under 0° is part of the southern hemisphere. It consists of around 81% of water (which is more than the Northern Hemisphere) and 32% of the land (which is less than the Northern Hemisphere). The seasons of these hemispheres are directly opposite to each other at all times of the year. The northern one has more land and population than the other whereas the other has more water and a bit larger than the other.

Q2. Define Northern Hemisphere and Give its Features.

Ans. The part of the Earth above the imaginary line of 0° i.e the equator is called the Northern hemisphere. Everything above this 0° line is part of this Hemisphere. It is that half division of the Earth that includes more land than water and has the largest population of the Earth. It includes all or some portions of all the continents except Antarctica and it includes a very small portion of Australia as well. This hemisphere is much hotter than the other because of the presence of more land but all the zones such as torrid, temperate, or frigid zones are also found here. The seasons here during the year are opposite of those present in the southern hemisphere.