Top
Download PDF

Illuviation in Geography

In geography, different characteristics and properties of water, soil, air, weather are discussed. Illuviation is one of the most important properties of soil. Soil has different layers depending on the materials and density. Illuviation is a kind of soil mixture, which is made by the accumulation of suspended or dissolved soil materials. The materials are accumulated in a particular area. The accumulation is the result of leaching from another area. The soil mixture contains iron, clay, humus, and other soil materials. In this article, we are going to define illuviation and the soil illuviation process in detail. Illuviation is an essential topic of geography as well as geology.


Illuviation Definition

The Illuviation of soil is a vital part of garbage management. To reduce the harm of garbage produced from soil, illuviation is a modern process. The accumulation of dissolved soil materials is called soil illuviation. The soil materials contain clay, humus, some metals such as iron, copper, zinc, etc, and some salts. The soil mixture has a new colour, density, and consistency for the different materials.


Illuviation Process

As a part of garbage management, soil illuviation is the next process of leaching. After leaching, the materials such as metals, salts, clay, humus are washed out and accumulated in a particular area. All the materials are mixed in that area in a layer and form a mixture, which contains a new colour and consistency. The mixture is formed by small particles of the materials and the particles are in the colloidal size. The area of illuviation is called the illuvial zone, which is usually a low area. In illuviation, the materials are displaced from one layer to another layer of soil. The materials are accumulated in the area for a long time. Thus, the mixture is produced and the entire process is complete by the displacement of materials by rainwater.


Contains of Illuviation

Illuviation of soil is a displacement process of soil materials across a soil profile. The materials, which are displaced from one layer to another are called illuvium in the illuviation process. Illuvium includes clay, humus, salts (NaCl, CaCl2), metals (iron, zinc, copper), oxides, etc. The displacement of illuvium is of two types- chemical and mechanical. In the mechanical process, the materials are accumulated in an area and the mixture is done. In the chemical process, the materials are transported with rainwater and the mixture is produced by the action of rainwater and the illuvium. These are the main soil materials in the process of soil illuviation.


Soil Horizon For Illuviation

The illuviation process can be completed by chemical or mechanical causes. If the displacement is by rainwater and the mixture is produced by the action of water, that is the chemical cause, if the displacement is the next step of leaching and the mixture is produced by the accumulation of dissolved soil materials, that is mechanical causes. Both the processes take place in a particular soil horizon. The horizon is known as the A horizon of soil, which is also the zone of illuviation. This horizon has formed below an A, E, or O horizon. B horizon is the evidence of carbonate removal.


Solved Examples

1. Give the Illuviation Soil Definition.

Solution: The accumulation of dissolved soil materials in a particular area or the displacement of the soil materials in a layer from another is called illuviation.

2. What are the Processes of Soil Illuviation?

Solution: The main two processes of illuviation are chemical and mechanical. If the process is completed by the action of rainwater, it is chemical. On the other hand, the mechanical process is done by the accumulation of dissolved soil materials after leaching.

3. What are the Soil Materials For Illuviation?

Solution: The soil materials for illuviation are called illuvium. Illuvium includes clay, humus, metals (iron, aluminum, copper, zinc, etc), salt (NaCl, CaCl2), oxides (silicon dioxide, iron oxide, aluminum oxide), carbonates, etc.

4. What is the Soil Horizon in Illuviation?

Solution: The illuviation process takes place in a particular area or layer of soil. The soil horizon for illuviation is called the B horizon and the area is called the zone of illuviation.

5. What is the Importance of Illuviation?

Solution: Illuviation is an essential process of garbage management. By this process, a new soil mixture is produced with new colour and consistency.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are the Differences Between Illuviation and Eluviation?

Ans: Illuviation and eluviation are two different processes of soil management. Here we are giving some differences between illuviation and eluviation in a tabular form.


Subject

Illuviation

Eluviation

Definition

The accumulation of dissolved soil materials in a particular area or a layer from another layer of soil is illuviation.

The removal process of soil materials from one horizon to another horizon is eluviation.   

Process

It is the process of accumulation of soil materials.

It is the process of transport of soil materials from one layer to another.

Soil Materials

The soil material of illuviation is called illuvium.

The soil material of eluviation is called eluvium.

Soil Horizon

Illuviation occurs in the B horizon or zone of illuviation.

Eluviation occurs in the A horizon or the eluvial zone. 

2. Give a Brief Description of the Soil Illuviation Process.

Ans: Illuviation is the process of accumulating dissolved soil materials in a particular area or the displacement of soil materials in a particular area the displacement of soil materials from one layer to another. There are mainly two processes of illuviation - chemical and mechanical. In the chemical process, the soil materials are displaced from one layer to another layer of the soil. The displacement is caused by the action of rainwater. The soil horizon in this process is the B horizon. In the mechanical process, the soil materials are washed out after leaching. The materials are accumulated in a particular area and the process is completed after a certain time. The accumulation area is below the surface and it is called the zone of illuviation. 

Share this with your friends
SHARE
TWEET
SHARE
SUBSCRIBE