Uric acid has the formula C5H4N4O3 and is a heterocyclic chemical comprising carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen. It produces urates and acid urates, such as ammonium acid urate, which are ions and salts. The metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides produces uric acid, which is a typical component of urine. High uric acid levels in the blood can cause gout and are linked to other medical issues such as diabetes and the creation of ammonium acid urate kidney stones.
Lactam–lactim tautomerism (also known as keto-enol tautomerism) is seen in uric acid. Despite the fact that the lactim form is predicted to have some aromaticity, the uric acid crystallises in the lactam form, with computational chemistry indicating that the tautomer is the more stable.
This article will study the natures craft uric acid formula in detail.
Properties of Uric Acid
Name - Uric Acid
Appearance - White crystals
Chemical Formula - C5H4N4O3
Melting Point - 300 °C
Density - 1.87 g/cm³
Molar Mass - 168.1103 g/mol
Solubility in Water - Soluble in Water
Natures Craft Uric Acid Structural Formula
As we already studied uric acid formula natures craft, now let's see the uric acid structural formula.
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Biochemistry of Uric Acid Formula Natures Craft
Xanthine oxidase is an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of xanthine and hypoxanthine, which are created from other purines to uric acid. The metal molybdenum is coupled to sulphur and oxygen in the active site of xanthine oxidase, which is a big enzyme. Xanthine oxidase can be found in cells as xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidoreductase, both of which have been isolated from bovine milk and spleen extracts. When there is a lack of oxygen, uric acid is produced (low oxygen saturation).
Clinical Significance of Uric Acid Formula
The standard range for uric acid in human blood plasma is 3.4–7.2 mg per 100 mL (200–430 mol/L) for males and 2.4–6.1 mg per 100 mL (140–360 mol/L) for women. Hyperuricemia and hypouricemia are the terms for uric acid concentrations in blood plasma that are above and below the normal range. Hyperuricosuria and hyperuricosuria are the terms for uric acid concentrations in urine that are above and below normal. Salivary uric acid levels may be linked to blood uric acid levels.
High Uric Acid
Gout is caused by hyperuricemia (high uric acid levels), which can be caused by a variety of factors:
Diet may play a role. Consumption of dietary purine, high-fructose corn syrup, and table sugar can raise uric acid levels.
Reduced excretion via the kidneys can cause an increase in serum uric acid.
Uric acid levels can be temporarily raised by fasting or rapid weight reduction.
By interfering with renal clearance, certain medicines, such as thiazide diuretics, can raise blood uric acid levels.
Tumour lysis syndrome is a metabolic complication of certain malignancies or chemotherapy that occurs as a result of the release of nucleobase and potassium into the bloodstream.
Gout is a painful condition caused by needle-like uric acid crystals precipitating in joints, capillaries, skin, and other tissues when blood uric acid levels are too high. Gout can develop when blood uric acid levels are as low as 6 mg per 100 mL (357 mol/L), but it can also develop when serum uric acid levels are as high as 9.6 mg per 100 mL (565 mol/L).
Purines in humans are converted to uric acid, which is then expelled into the urine. Consumption of purine-rich foods, particularly meat and shellfish, raises the risk of gout. Gout can be caused by eating meats like liver, kidney, and sweetbreads, as well as fish like anchovies, herring, sardines, mussels, scallops, trout, haddock, mackerel, and tuna on a frequent basis. However, a moderate diet of purine-rich foods is not linked to an increased risk of gout.
Tumour Lysis Syndrome
Tumour lysis syndrome, a life-threatening illness caused by blood malignancies, causes elevated uric acid levels in the blood when tumour cells spontaneously or after treatment discharge their contents into the bloodstream. When uric acid crystals form in the kidneys, tumour lysis syndrome can cause acute renal damage. Hyperhydration to dilute and eliminate uric acid through urine, rasburicase to lower levels of poorly soluble uric acid in the blood, or allopurinol to prevent purine catabolism from adding to uric acid levels are all options for treatment.
High serum uric acid levels are also linked to Lesch–Nyhan syndrome, a rare hereditary illness. This syndrome is characterised by spasticity, involuntary movement, cognitive impairment, and gout symptoms.
Hyperuricemia may raise cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Type 2 Diabetes
Hyperuricemia may be a result of insulin resistance rather than a cause of diabetes. One study found that elevated serum uric acid was linked to a greater risk of type 2 diabetes, even when other factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension were taken into account. Hyperuricemia is linked to metabolic syndrome components, including in children.
Uric Acid Stone Formation
Deposits of sodium urate microcrystals can cause kidney stones. When uric acid in the blood reaches saturation levels, the urate crystallises in the kidney, resulting in one type of kidney stone. Because uric acid stones are radiolucent, they do not show up on a plain abdomen X-ray. Uric acid crystals can also act as "seed crystals" in the production of calcium oxalate stones.
Low Uric Acid
Hypouricemia (low uric acid) can be caused by a variety of factors. Lower uric acid levels are caused by a lack of zinc in the diet. In women who use oral contraceptives, this effect can be considerably more pronounced. Sevelamer, a medicine used to prevent hyperphosphatemia in persons with chronic kidney failure, can lower serum uric acid levels considerably.
The serum uric acid levels of individuals with multiple sclerosis were considerably lower than those of healthy controls, according to a meta-analysis of ten case-control studies, possibly providing a diagnostic biomarker for multiple sclerosis.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic molecule made up of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. Urates and acid urates, such as ammonium acid urate, are ions and salts that it creates. Uric acid is produced by the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides, and it is a common component of urine. Gout is caused by high uric acid levels in the blood, which have also been linked to diabetes and the formation of ammonium acid urate kidney stones.