Aluminium trichloride or aluminium (III) chloride are other names for aluminium chloride. When aluminium and chlorine combine together, the chemical is created. AlCl3 is the chemical formula for it. When it comes to aesthetics, aluminium chloride is often white. It takes on a yellowish colour due to the presence of impurities (iron(III) chloride).
Aluminium chloride is used to make aluminium metal in industry, but it also has a variety of functions in the chemical industry, primarily as a Lewis acid. Covalently bound solid aluminium chloride (AlCl3) has a low melting and boiling temperature.
Here, we will study the molecular formula of aluminium chloride in detail.
Properties of Aluminium Chloride
Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish scientist, and chemist, discovered aluminium chloride for the first time in 1825. This is one of the earliest chemical compounds, notably in the field of organic chemistry. Below, we'll go through a few properties of this compound.
IUPAC Name-Aluminium Chloride
Chemical formula of Aluminium Chloride- AlCl3
Molar Mass-133.341 g/mol (anhydrous), 241.432 g/mol (hexahydrate)
Density- 2.48 g/cm3 (anhydrous), 2.398 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)
Melting Point- 192.6°C (anhydrous),100°C (hexahydrate, dec.)
Boiling Point- 180°C
Preparation of AlCl3(Formula of Aluminium Chloride)
Aluminium chloride is primarily made by an exothermic reaction between two elements: aluminium and chlorine. Aluminium chloride can also be obtained in a variety of other methods. Reacting aluminium metal with hydrogen chloride or performing a single displacement reaction between copper chloride and aluminium metal are two popular methods. The following reactions show the preparation of AlCl3(chemical formula of aluminium chloride).
2Al + 3Cl2 → 2AlCl3
2Al + 6HCl → 2AlCl3+ H2
2Al + 3CuCl2 → 2AlCl3 + 3Cu
Structure of Aluminium Chloride
It's sometimes difficult to understand the structure of AlCl3. To write the structure first write down the formula of aluminium chloride. When this chemical molecule is subjected to different temperatures, it tends to create diverse types of structures. It also relies on the compound's condition, whether it's solid, liquid, or gaseous.
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In its solid state, AlCl3 has a cubic close-packed layered structure. Its coordination geometry will be octahedral in this situation. In a liquid or molten form, aluminium chloride occurs as a dimer. Its coordination geometry will be tetrahedral in this case. The dimers disintegrate into trigonal planar at higher temperatures.
Physical Properties of Aluminium Chloride
The melting and boiling points of aluminium chloride are quite low.
At 180°C, it reaches its pinnacle.
AlCl3 is a poor conductor of electricity in its molten state.
Aluminum chloride is white in colour, but it is frequently contaminated by iron trichloride, which turns it yellow.
Only at pressures more than 2.5 atm and temperatures more than 190°C can it become liquid.
Chemical Properties of Aluminium Chloride
Aluminium chloride is an extremely potent Lewis acid.
It's a significant industrial catalyst.
AlCl3 is a corrosive solid that is anhydrous, non-explosive, and non-flammable.
When it comes into contact with water, it reacts strongly.
Applications of Aluminium Chloride
Aluminium chloride is a versatile chemical molecule that may be used in a variety of applications, including chemical reactions and synthesis. The usage of aluminium chloride will be discussed further down.
AlCl3 is primarily utilized as a catalyst in a variety of chemical processes. It is widely utilized in both acylations and alkylations in Friedel-Crafts reactions. It's utilized in the process of making anthraquinone from phosgene and benzene.
Aldehyde groups can be brought in or attached to aromatic series or rings using aluminium chloride. Consider the Gatterman-Koch reaction, in which a Lewis acid (aluminium chloride) is employed to extract a chloride ion from a solution.
It's also employed in light molecular weight hydrocarbon polymerization and isomerization procedures. Ethylbenzene manufacturing and dodecylbenzene production for detergents are two common examples.
Bis(arene) metal complexes can be made by mixing aluminium chloride with aluminium and arene.
Rubber, lubricants, wood preservatives, and paints are all made with aluminium chloride.
Pesticides and medications contain it.
As a flux in the melting of aluminium.
It's a type of antiperspirant.
Is Aluminium Chloride Hazardous?
Anhydrous aluminium chloride should be kept away from water and bases with extreme caution. Because of the intense heat of hydration, aluminium chloride can explode when it comes into contact with water. It also emits fumes into the atmosphere. During chemical reactions, protective equipment such as glasses, gloves, and a faceguard should be worn. This chemical component should be kept in a firmly sealed container that is kept dry.
When AlCl3 comes into contact with moist air, it absorbs the moisture and becomes very acidic, turning into a sticky substance.
Materials like stainless steel and rubber can be severely corroded by it.
Long-term contact with this substance can irritate the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract.
Aluminium chloride has been discovered to be a neurotoxic in some investigations, capable of destroying nerve tissues and causing lasting harm.
Aluminium chloride is also known as aluminium trichloride or aluminium (III) chloride. The chemical is formed when aluminium and chlorine are combined. The chemical formula for it is AlCl3. Aluminium chloride is frequently white when it comes to aesthetics. Because of the presence of impurities (iron(III) chloride), it turns a yellowish colour.
Aluminium chloride is used in industry to create aluminium metal, but it also serves a variety of roles in the chemical industry, most notably as a Lewis acid. The melting and boiling temperatures of covalently bonded solid aluminium chloride (AlCl3) are both low.