Traditional Approach

Define Traditional Approach

The Traditional Approach distinguishes the accounts while the modern approach implements the accounting equation required for accounting. Under the traditional approach, the ledger accounts are then classified into - Personal and Impersonal accounts. The rules of debit and credit that are directed in this traditional approach are the golden rules.


The traditional Approach classifies accounts while the Modern approach uses the Accounting equation for accounting. All the ledger accounts are classified as ‘Personal’ and ‘Impersonal accounts’ under the Traditional approach.


Certain rules apply for Debit and Credit in the Traditional approach, such as 

  1. Debit is what comes in whereas credit is what goes out. 

  2. Debit refers to the expenses and the losses, and

  3. Credit refers to the income and gains.

 

Traditional Approach of Financial Accounting

The financial accounts are to be classified into two types of approaches. First, according to the traditional approach also known as the British approach. The other is the Modern approach also known as the American approach. The Key factors under the Traditional approach are the personal and impersonal accounts which we will further illustrate in the prevailing sections.


Financial Accounts are Classified into:

  1. The Traditional Approach to Financial accounting is also referred to as the British approach

  2. The Modern approach, or also referred to as the American approach.

Traditional account, accounts are classified into

  1. Personal Accounts, and

  2. Impersonal Accounts.


Personal Accounts

These accounts are accounts that belong to human beings or natural persons and even artificial persons. Personal accounts are further classified into:


Natural persons, Artificial persons, Representative persons.

 

We will understand the mentioned in detail.


  1. Natural Persons 

Natural persons are human beings. In this case, we include accounts belonging to humans, meaning respective accounts are owned by individual persons. So, Debtor’s A/c., then the Creditor’s A/c., Proprietor’s A/c., Proprietor’s Capital A/c., Proprietor’s Drawings A/c. all fall under this category.


  1. Artificial Persons

These are the persons who are not human beings but legally can act and work like humans. As mentioned, artificial persons, possess a separate identity in the eyes of law. Thus, they can enter into any contractual agreements. With this, they qualify to be penalized too. HUF also known as the Hindu undivided families, partnership firms, the co-operative societies, associations of persons, companies, the municipal corporations, even the hospitals, baking sectors, government bodies, etc all are artificial persons under the eyes of the law.


  1. Representative Persons 

As suggested by the name, these accounts merely represent the accounts of the persons. These persons may be natural and even artificial. The nominal accounts of expenses and incomes which are outstanding, pre-paid, accrued, or unearned, fall under this representative person’s category. Thus, Wages Outstanding A/c, Prepaid Rent A/c, Accrued Interest A/c, Unearned Commission A/c, etc. come into this category.


Impersonal Accounts

Accounts that are not included in the Personal Accounts, Impersonal Accounts fall under two categories.

1) Real accounts and 2) Nominal accounts.

  1. Real Accounts

Real Accounts are related to all the assets and liabilities of a business and these accounts are not closed at the end of the accounting year. They continue to appear in the financial statement of a company, in the Balance Sheet and carried forward to the upcoming accounting year. 

These are permanent accounts and they fall into the following categories :

  1. Tangible Real Account are those assets, properties, or possessions that can be touched, seen or measured. Some examples of this are the Building A/c, Furniture A/c, Cash A/c.

  2. Intangible Real Account comprises all assets and possessions which one cannot touch, see or measure, and these have a monetary value. These can be bought and sold even. Certain examples are Goodwill, Patents, Copyrights, Trademark, etc.


  1. Nominal Accounts 

Nominal Accounts are accounts that are related to the expenses, the losses, the incomes, and the gains, and these are temporary accounts. The balances of these are transferred to the Trading and Profit and Loss A/c at the end of the accounting year. These accounts don't have a balance that needs to be carried forward to the next year. 

FAQs on Traditional Approach

1. What is the Modern Approach?

Here, the accounts are not debited and credited. An Accounting Equation is used to debit or credit an account and this is also known as the Accounting Equation Approach. The Basic Accounting Equation is: Assets = Liabilities + Capital (which is the Owner's Equity)


Modern Accounting has a Few Rules:

i) If the capital account is increased it then has been debited, and if decreased then,it has to be credited.

ii) Asset Account is debited if decreased and increased with a credit account.

iii) Liabilities Account is increased and is debited whereas liabilities account decreased it is credited.

iv) The expense account is decreased then it is debited and if increased it is credited. 

2. What are real accounts?

Real accounts are accounts that are related to all the assets and liabilities of a business. These accounts are not closed at the end of the accounting year, and they continue to appear in the Balance Sheet of the next year. The balances of these accounts are carried forward to the next accounting year. These are permanent accounts that have been categorized into two, namely, Tangible Real Account and Intangible Real Account.

3. What is the meaning of Natural and Artificial persons?

Natural Persons are referred to as human beings. Here, we include accounts belonging to humans, which means, the respective accounts are owned by individual persons. So, the various Debtor’s A/c.,  Creditor’s A/c., Proprietor’s A/c., Proprietor’s Capital A/c., Proprietor’s Drawings A/c. , are all under this category.


ii)  Artificial Persons refer to those who are not human beings but can legally act and work like humans. Artificial persons, according to the law,  have a  separate identity. They can enter into any contractual agreements and they can be penalized too.  

4. Who are Representative Persons?

Representative Persons are accounts that merely represent the accounts of the persons, and these could be either natural or artificial.   Under this representative person’s category, the nominal accounts of expenses and incomes which are outstanding, pre-paid, accrued, or unearned, Wages Outstanding A/c, Prepaid Rent A/c, Accrued Interest A/c, Unearned Commission A/c, etc. All fall under this category.

5. Give a few examples of Artificial Persons?

A classification which comes under the Personal Accounts sections in the Traditional Accounting Approach, the Artificial persons are those who, according to the law, have separate identities. The Artificial Persons can be penalized too. Examples of the Artificial Persons are:


The Hindu undivided families, the various partnership firms,  co-operative societies, the associations of persons, the municipal corporations, hospitals, banking sectors, government bodies, etc all fall under the Artificial person category, under the eyes of the law.


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6. What is a Proprietor’s Account?

A Proprietor’s account is classified as a personal account. A personal account means the account of a real person or a human being. The term ‘Proprietor’ whereas means the owner of the business, hence, in this case, it can be said that the owner’s own personal account is termed as the Proprietor’s Account.

7. What is HUF?

HUF is the abbreviated term of the Hindu Undivided Family business, this is the precise kind of business structure that is found only in India. The business is managed by the head of the family (the eldest member) and he is called the Karta of the business. However, all the members hold equal ownership over the property of an ancestor, and thus, they are known as coparceners.

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